(i) Population explosion (ii) Agriculture: shifting cultivation, overgrazing, cash crop economy etc.
(iii) Commercial logging: cutting trees for sale as timber or pulp (iv) Poverty (v) Mining (vi) Dams (vii) Infrastructure creation for logging (viii) Forest-fires (ix) Acid rain (x) Development projects and housing projects. Effects of Deforestation:The ill-effects of deforestation are summarized below:
Soil is exposed to wind, sunlight, and evaporation due to deforestation. Soil fertility goes down due to soil erosion and rapid leaching of essential mineral nutrients.
As the soil is eroded, it accelerates siltation in dams, rivers, and the coastal zone. The increased sedimentation harms downstream fisheries.
Because of deforestation, there is no regulation of the flow into rivers.
As result, floods and droughts alternate in the affected areas.
Butterflies, migratory birds, wild animals suffer due to the loss of their habitat.
Many species are affected and some get extincted.
The rainfall pattern is affected as the forest is cut down. Local and global climate changes may result from deforestation.
If the trees are burned, the carbon is released immediately as carbon dioxide which leads to global warming.
Communities lose their source of food, fuel, construction materials and areas for livestock grazing by deforestation.