2. Off-the-job Method
1. On-the-job Method:
The most common method used by industry to train individuals is on-the-job training. Virtually every employee, from clerk to general manager, gets some “on-the-job training”. Under this method, the employee is given training at his workplace by his immediate superior who knows exactly what the trainee should learn to do.
To be effective, training instructions should be helpful, friendly and personal. The management should also keep a close watch and check up on the training from time to time. On-the-job training may take any one of the following forms:
Under coaching or understudy method, the-employee is trained on the job by his immediate superior.
The purpose of position rotation is to broaden the background of the employee in various positions. The employee is made to move from job to job at certain intervals.
(c) Special Assignments are used to provide the employees with firsthand experience in working on the actual problems.
Merits of On-the-job Training:
(a) It permits the trainee to learn on the actual equipment and environment on the
(b) It is relatively cheaper and less time consuming as no additional personnel or facilities are required for training.
(c) As the trainee gets a feeling of actual production conditions, it increases the effectiveness of training.
Demerits of On-the-job Training:
(a) The instruction in On-the-job training is often highly disorganised and haphazard.
(b) Trainees are often subjected to distractions of a noisy shop or office.
(c) There is low productivity.
This method attempts to duplicate on-the-job situations in a company classroom. The trainees are taken through a short course under working conditions that approximate actual shop, sales or office conditions.
This technique enables the trainee to concentrate on learning the new skills rather than on performing an actual job.
Vestibule training is suitable where it is not advisable to put the burden of training on line supervisors and where special coaching is required.
However, trainees have to face the adjustment problem when they are placed in the actual work place.
2. Class Room or off-the job Method:
Off-the job training simply means that training is not a part of everyday job activities. Classroom or off-the-job instructions are useful when concepts, attitudes, theories and problem-solving abilities are to be taught. It is associated more with knowledge than skill. Off-the-job method consists of:
This is most commonly used to address large groups about general topics. The lecturer possesses a considerable depth of knowledge on the subject at hand.
He seeks to communicate his thoughts in such a manner as to interest the class and cause them to retain what he has said. The trainees generally take notes as an aid to learning.
In this method, the participating individuals ‘confer’ to discuss points of common interest to each other. It is an effective training device for persons in the positions of both conference member and conference leader.
As a member, a person can learn from others by comparing his opinions with those of others. As a conference leader, a person can develop the skill to motivate people through his direction of discussion.
There are three types of conferences:
(i) Direct Discussion:
The trainer guides the discussion in such a way that the facts, principles or concepts are explained.
(ii) Training Conference:
The instructor gets the group to pool its knowledge and past experience and brings different points of view on the problem.
(iii) Seminar Conference:
The instructor defines the problem, encourages and ensures full participation in the discussion.
The conference is ideally suited to learning about problems and issues and examining them from different angles.
It is considered to be the best method for reducing dogmatism employed in supervisory and executive development programmes.
Seminar is based on a paper prepared by one or more trainees on a subject selected in consultation with the person in charge of the seminar.
The trainee read their papers and this is followed by a critical discussion. The chairman of the seminar summarises the contents of the papers and the discussions, which follow their reading.
The case study method, which was popularised by the Harvard Business School USA, is one of the common forms of training to the employees.
This method was first developed in the 1880’s by Christopher Langdell at the Harvard Law School to help students to learn for themselves by independent thinking. A collateral objective is to help them develop skills in using their knowledge.
Under the case study method, the trainees may be given a problem to discuss which is more or less related to the principles already taught.
This method gives the trainee an opportunity to apply his knowledge to the solution of realistic problems.
The case study places heavy demands upon the trainees and requires that they should have a good deal of maturity and background in the subject-matter concerned.
Case studies are extensively used in teaching law, personnel management, human relations, management etc.
The trainees learn that there is no single answer to a particular problem. The answer of each trainee may differ.
Case discussions will help them to appreciate each other’s thinking. That is why case studies are frequently used in supervisory and executive training. In the case study method, the trainee is expected to:
(i) Master the facts and content of the case.
(ii) Define the objectives and issues in the case.
(iii) Identify the problems in the case.
(iv) Develop alternative courses of action.
(v) Screen the alternatives using the objectives and issues as the criteria.
(vi) Suggest the controls needed to make the action effective.
This method was developed by Moreno, a Venetian psychiatrist. Role-playing technique is used for human relations and leadership training.
Its purpose is to give trainees an opportunity to learn human relations skills through practice and to develop insight into one’s own behaviour and its effect upon others.
Under this method, a conflict situation is artificially constructed and two or more trainees are assigned different parts to play. The trainees act out a given role as they would in a stage play.
The role players are provided with a description of a situation and the role they are to play. After being allowed sufficient time to play their parts, they must then act their part spontaneously before the group.
Role-playing primarily involves employee-employer relationships – hiring, firing, and discussing a grievance procedure, conducting a post-appraisal interview or representation to a customer. Role-playing is especially useful in providing new insights and in presenting the trainee with opportunities to develop interfactional skills.
A management game is a classroom exercise in which teams of students compete against each other to achieve common objectives. The game is designed to be a close representation of real-life conditions.
Sensitivity training or T-group training means the development of awareness and sensitivity to behavioural patterns of oneself and others.
In sensitivity training, the trainees are enabled to see themselves as others see them and develop an understanding of others’ views and behaviour.
It aims at increasing tolerance power of the individual and his ability to understand others. The sensitivity training programmes are generally conducted under controlled laboratory conditions.