Skull: jaws and support the mouth for

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Skull consists of two main parts – cranium and face. Cranium (brain box) is formed by 8 bones and provides a bony protection for the brain. White collagen fibre prevents the mobility of skull (cranial) bones.


There are 14 bones which form the skeleton of face. This region consists of bones of olfactory capsule and jaws. Olfactory capsule consists of nasal (in roof), vomer (in floor), premaxillae and maxillae at the sides. Both mandible and maxillae, representing lower jaw and upper jaws respectively, have sockets for teeth. Only the lower jaw can move as it is attached to temporal area of skull with a hinge joint. Basically these facial bones forms jaws and support the mouth for feeding. There are also present 6 ear ossicles in the skull.

These are malleus (2), incus (2) and stapes (2). Hyoid is a horse shoe shaped bone present in neck between lower jaw and sound box (or larynx). It is also called tongue is not articulated to any bone, but is simply suspended, from temporal bones by means of ligaments.

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It supports tongue and provides insertion to some tongue muscles. It consists of an elliptical main part (or body) and two processes called greater and lesser cornua. Displacement of vertebrae from its normal position due to displacement or degeneration of a part of intervertebral disc is called ship disc.


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