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Terms & Key WordsSection II
Topic #2: The Reign of Terror and the Guillotine
Storming of the Tuileries (Aug 1792): revolutionary event during which the king’s Swiss Guards were massacred by the Paris mob, forcing Louis XVI to seek refuge with the National Assembly, which took him prisoner
Philippe Egalite: adopted name of the Duke of Orleans, who was a cousin of Louis XVI ; who voted for the king’s execution
sans-culottes: “without breeches”the Paris mob who wore long trousers, not knee breeches like the aristocrats
Reign of Terror: period of extreme violence during the French Revolution implemented by Robespierre & his followers to protect the Revolution & establish the Republic of Virtue
Republic of Virtue: ideal state envisioned by Robespierre where all citizens would possess high moral standards & be dedicated patriots
guillotine: a supposedly humane mode of capital punishment, it was a modernized mechanism used to decapitate over 20,000 people during the Reign of Terror
Dr. Joseph-Ignace Guillotin: Paris deputy & professor of anatomy who proposed a single humane mode of capital punishment involving decapitation by a simple mechanism
Dr. Antoine Louis: secretary of the Academy of Surgery who designed the guillotine
the Planke: beheading device used before 1400 in Germany & Flanders
mandara: aka mannaiabeheading device used in Renaissance Italy during the 15th century
Scottish Maiden: only surviving example of a pre-guillotine used until 1710
Tobias Schmidt: German harpsichord maker who actually built the first guillotine
Jacques Nicolas Pelletier: thief & assassin who was the first live prisoner publicly executed with the guillotine
the “red mass”: fanatical phrase used in reference to the executions by guillotine during the Reign of Terror
“patriotic tour”: euphemistic phrase used in reference to the transporting of guillotines to rural areas of France during the Reign of Terror
Victims’ Balls: a reaction to the Reign of Terror in which the family ; friends of those executed gathered to waltz in remembrance of the dead
CH 17: The Transatlantic Economy, Trade Wars ; Colonial Rebellion
“decolonization” (p. 378): dismantling Europe’s colonial empires; the fourth and final stage of Europe’s relations with the wider world; mid-20th century
mercantilism (p. 379): bullion measure country’s wealth; excess of exports over imports; world’s resources were limited only one nation at the expense of others, established colonies, didn’t work in reality
the factories (pp. 379-80): European trading posts in India; two major English and French trading companies existed out of these posts
Council of the Indies (p. 380): Spain governed America; in conjunction with the crown legislated the American colonies and nominated viceroys of New Spain and peru; Political Power Flowed from the top down.
audiencias (p. 380): Each of the Spanish Viceroys were divided up into these judicial districts;
corregidores (p. 380): most important local officials Spanish America; Chairs of the municipal councils;
Casa de Contratacion (p. 380): “House of Trade”; located in Seville; regulated all commerce with the new world
Cadiz (p. 380): only port authorized for use by ships trading with America
The flota (p. 380): a fleet of commercial vessels belonging to Seville’s merchants and escorted by warships; carried merchandise from Spain to a few specified ports in America; loaded up with Gold and sent back
peninsulares (p. 381): persons born in Spain; instrument of Charles III; allowed more control over the colonies
creoles (p. 381): persons born in colonies; treated as 2nd class citizens by the peninsulares
Silesia (p. 387): Austrian province annexed; Fredrick II did this to take advantage of the death of Charles VI
Convention of Westminster (p. 388): Austria aligned with French; France didn’t want to be caught b/w Prussia and Britain; was intended to prevent foreign troops from entering the Germanies, alarmed Maria Theresa
Seven Years’ War (pp. 388-9): pitted Prussia ; Britain against France ; Austria;
William Pitt the Elder (pp. 388-9): British secretary of state; by siding with Prussia; helped take attention off of North America and in effect won the colonies on the plains of Germany; united colonies as no one had before
Robert Clive (p. 389): British commander in India; opened the way for the conquest of Bengal and all India
Treaty of Paris (p. 389): ended Seven Years’ War; 1763; Britain won out but settled with some select locations
Sugar Act, 1764 (p. 390): increase revenue by more rigorously collecting what was actually a lower tax;
Stamp Act, 1765 (p. 390): tax on legal


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