And in the articles of its constitution it is provided that “the purpose of the organisation is to contribute to peace and security by promoting collaboration among the nations through education, science and culture in order to further universal respect for justice, for the rule of law, and for the human rights and fundamental freedoms which are affirmed for the people of the world without distinction of sex, language or religion by the Charter of the United Nations.” The UNESCO, in brief, aims at promoting international peace and security through education, science and culture and thereby to further universal respect for justice, rule of law, human rights, and fundamental freedoms for all the peoples. It is not concerned with the task of solving any urgent political problems, as the Security Council and the General Assembly do, but it is to take positive steps to promote peace and international understanding through a sustained educational campaign of the new philosophy of humanism. It is, thus, dedicated to fostering an awareness of the intellectual and moral solidarity of mankind. UNESCO’s activities are so varied as to defy a brief description. It strives to increase international exchange of students and scholars, to conduct the study of social problems likely to create national and international tensions, and to provide technical assistance for the economic and political development of undeveloped areas.
How significant it is, is evident from the fact that States are requesting more technical assistance from UNESCO than it has funds to supply. The habit on the part of many countries of turning to an international agency for help can hardly fail to develop international-mindedness. UNESCO has also devised means to lessen illiteracy in the world and has liberally assisted in the rebuilding of educational systems in the developing countries.
It has periodically arranged holding of seminars and conferences to standardize knowledge by pooling scholarship. It has also published illuminating reports of such deliberations and discussions, which add to a common understanding of the international problems in the field of education. The organisation works through a Generally Conference, which is held now once in two years, an Executive Board and a Secretariat. The General Conference, consisting of representatives from each member-State, convenes every two years to formulate policies and to approve the programme and budget for the next two years. The Executive Board, composed of 30 members, elected by the General Conference, is the body responsible for the execution of the programme, adopted by the Conference. The Secretariat is the pivotal organ which is responsible for the day-to-day administration and for implementing the programme adopted by the General Conference and endorsed by the Board. It is headed by a Director-General proposed by the Executive Board and appointed by the Conference. National commissions, composed of representatives of the Government and nongovernmental organization in each of the member-States, link UNESCO with the educational, scientific and cultural life in each country and assist in carrying out UNESCO’s programme.