The final defeat and withdrawal of the armies of Islam was no doubt due in first instance to those adventurers whose journeys across the ocean brought vast new lands under European rule or influence. Europe had additional wealth and resources at its disposal. Thus, it gave Europe new strength with which to resist and ultimately throw back Muslim invader. In addition, the sequence of events that European called discoveries and others have called the expansion of Europe inaugurated a new age not only European but in world history, that era of European penetration, infiltration, and influence ended up by domination.
This European encounter with the rest of the world, from the late fifteenth century onward, took a variety of different forms. In some regions as for example, northern Asia and North America, Europeans came into uninhabited or thinly inhabited land in which they were able to settle their civilization. However, Europe again encountered Islam in its expansion. Islam was a universal religion, and it never abandoned its universalistic aspirations at that time.
The encounter between Europe and Islam was different from the encounters of Europe with India and china. Since, Europe and Islam were old acquaintances, intimate enemies, whose continuing conflict derived a special virulence from their shared origins and common aims. Moreover, the desire of European expansion was caused by the previous attacks of Muslims on Christian land. Therefore, the conquered people of Europe felt the revenge desire of restoring their homelands and push out the Muslims who invaded them.
It was clear since then that the victorious Europeans will not stop at expulsion, hence the Spaniards and Portuguese and other European powers invaded Muslim territories. Once, Europe became an empire it was clear that their conquests will continue beyond the Atlantic and pacific seas under the same argument “religious war”. However, the successful European empire had a counterpart in the muslim world “the ottomans” which were also expanding since the extension of Ottoman power in Syria and Egypt and in north Africa to the Moroccan frontier have greatly strengthened Muslim presence in the Mediterranean. Which caused the Portuguese and Spanish attacks on Morocco and Tunisia to be failures due to the Ottomans and Moroccans. In spite of this, on 12 September 1683, after the failure of the weakened Ottomans to invade Vienna it was clear that Muslims would not have a vast control on central Europe.
This event was followed by several defeats and losses of cities and provinces. The victories of the Europeans were confirmed by the peace treaty of Carlowitz, established on 26 January 1699. During this period the Muslim world was falling economically and its welfare deteriorated to less than Europeans at a certain time. This treaty was in fact different from its predecessors. Since prior to that there was always a state of war between the advancing power of Islam and its infidel enemies, conceived as perpetual religious duty, was from time to time interrupted by ceasefires, ordered by the victorious Muslims to their weakened rivals. While, during the Carlowitz treaty, it was the first time that the Ottomans have agreed to ceasefire with a balanced way and they forgot about Turkish protocol and treated the European monarch as equal to the emperor who conceded his title.
This was not the last disaster for the Muslims, in 1769 Russia started a war against the empire that ended in great tragedy. After that date the Muslim world continued on declining. As a result, the relationship between Europe and Islam had changed dramatically. Once again, as in the days before the imperial expansion of Europe, the Middle East offers an attractive market in which European merchants and their government competes to sell their merchandises.
The imbalance in favor of Europe in military and industrial resources and capacity and in the production and the use of technology remains. However the financial situation at that time is reversed. Between 1939 and 1945, probably for the last time, European states fought out their wars on European soil, with similar unconcern. In the financial markets, it is now Muslim governments and individuals that invest and lend vast sums and dispose of immense assets in Europe.
Some have even described the present situation as the third Muslim invasion of Europe, more successful than either the first or the second. According to them, capital and labor have succeeded where the armies of the Moors and the Turks both failed. There are now close to 2 millions Turkish and other Muslims in Germany, similar or greater numbers of North Africans in France, and of Indians, Pakistanis, and Bangladeshis in the united kingdom, as well as others in Belgium, Holland, Switzerland, Austria, Spain, Italy, and the Scandinavian countries, establishing for the first time since the defeat and eradication of Muslim presence across the Straits of Gibraltar in 1492, a massive and permanent Muslim presence in Europe.
These communities are still bound by a thousand ties of language, culture, kinship, as well as religion, to their countries of origin and yet, inexorably, are becoming integrated in their countries of residence. Their presence, and that of their children and grandchildren, will have incalculable but certainly immense consequences for the future both of Islam and Europe. After these centuries of encounters it is clear that Muslim populations were obliged later on to live under non-Muslim rule.
Throughout, history Muslim communities especially in Spain, after reconquista, were obliged to live under the rule of the newly established governments, to which they paid tribute in return of tolerance. They were detested by both emigrants and the unconquered, which saw them as tames of the Christians. This ancestor of racism was not understandable by the Muslims at that time, since under Muslim rue the Christians were allowed to practice under Muslim rule and even monogamy was enforced. Therefore Muslims thought that they should be allowed to be polygamous under Christian rule since these latest were allowed to be monogamous under Muslim rule.