At the start of this course we summarized definition of knowledge.
Knowledge, according to Plato,it is represented by 3 words: believed,true and justified. I say I know something when believe in it,if it is true and I can prove it is true by giving some evidence to it. Human and Natural sciences are a very important source of knowledge in our society.According to my opinion what the question is trying to do is : -give a us a clear view about human and natural sciences role in gaining knowledge -are human and natural similar ( methods) or different (methods) -Is the knowledge gained from Human Science different from knowledge gained from Natural Sciences; and can it be reliable?? Natural Sciences denote subjects like physics,chemistry and biology. Natural Sciences have had a great success in providing new knowledge and as a result some people consider it as the only road to knowledge,and if you don’t prove something scientifically then you can`t say you know it.Science is considered a stamp of approval or guarantee of quality. But we can argue that if scientific beliefs change over time,so how the certainty can be gained? Science doesn`t have a full control of the truth and for the rest of society there exist other ways which can make sense.
In Natural Sciences,science and pseudo-science are present and they sometimes are not distinguished from each-other,so the `knowledge` which can circulate may not always be true.What distinguishes a pseudo-science is that it claims the status of science while lacking its substance. For example: In our course we used the example of Little Red Riding Hood who coudn`t notice that coudn`t tell her grandmother from a wolf which in simple words means that in everyday life are people who disguise themselves as real scientist.
According to Scientific method called Inductivism science is composed by 5 main key steps: Observation–> hypothesis–>prediction–>Testing–>New observationsAfter observing(senses,empirical) Data and trying ti find a relationship between them,scientist try to form a hypothesis(a theory) which after will lead to a prediction(effects). To prove the hypothesis is true,it is tested. After is being tested,despite the result it will always be and endless circle as new observations takle place.
This is how science developed through years and how it is upmentioned: Scientific belief change over time. Scientific method not always achieve success,for a couple of reasons: Observations are based on senses,so they are empirical.Knowing that our senses are not always accurate,as a result observation might be unaccurate as well. Sometimes confirmation bias may happen: our brain interpretates the observations for us.
Observation need use of equipments which sometimes may complicate all the process. Hypothesis follows a deductive to inductive logical process which means general to specific. Th weaknesses of this process is what stands between truth and validity. Hypothesis may be untrue but valid in the same time: Cactuces need lots of water to survive and grow.Annie is a Cactus.
So,Annie needs lots of water. In this case we know that Cactuses don`t need lots of water,but the argument at the end is valid. Science method states that no matter how many particular instances of a phenomenon correspond to the general rule,we can never be absolutely sure that we will not find another instance that does not correspond. Our knowledge doesn`t necessary has to be true,it can be the hypotheses that survived testing the best as we know that scientists don`t disagree the laws, they disprove the hypotheses.
Other methods used on natural sciences are: quantification,double blind trials and objectivity. Quantification refers to human acts, known as counting and measuring that map human sense observations and experiences into members of some set of numbers. Quantification in this sense is fundamental to the scientific method. (Wikipedia) Objectivity in science is the property of scientific measurement that can be tested independent from the individual scientist (the subject) who proposes them. It is intimately related to the aim of testability and reproducibility.To be properly considered objective, the results of measurement must be communicated from person-to-person, and then demonstrated for third parties, as an advance in understanding of the objective world. Such demonstrable knowledge would ordinarily confer demonstrable powers of prediction or technological construction.
(Wikipedia) In Science,Paradigms are the main theories in a subject. It is noticed that dring `normal science` period most of the scientists wee trying to discover a new thing from the paradigm without taking the paradigm granted.According to Popper this is a problem of science as you can`t gain any result,if you are endlessly questioning your assumptions. Thomas Kuhn has argued that history of science is punctuated by revolutions. A scientific revolution happens when scientist replace a paradigm with a new one which changes the way of looking at things. This may be considered a good thing as generates the knowledge,improves it.
Science is communal and self-correcting. Because sooner or later the errors of one individual will be corrected by another individual in the future.