ARE WE MEETING THE NEEDS OF STUDENTS IN SPECIAL EDUCATION Research Writing Instructor: Maryanne Kuzara March 26, 2010 Students with emotional and behavior disorders are not offered the same education as normal students. Although students with emotional and behavior disorders can be disruptive and cause problems during the educational process, they deserve the same education as all students. Most emotionally disturbed children have an inability to learn. These children have the failure to build or continue satisfactory interpersonal interaction with peers and teachers who may cause problems in the classroom.
Children who are emotionally disturbed demonstrate inappropriate types of behavior which affects them in a classroom setting. These children also suffer from depression and unhappiness which also affects them in the classroom. These students suffer from so many problems. How do they get the education they deserve? Students with behavior problems can cause many of problems which will make it difficult to be taught. Most of the time these children are smart academically but their behavior is preventing them completing their class work during school time. Children with behavior problems lack social skills. According to McGrath, H. amp; Francey, S (1991,par 2), However, while many social skills may be learned implicitly, all children can benefit from being taught social skills explicitly, not only children who are developmentally lagging behind their peers. Social skills are not always learned easily. Some children may require repeated instruction and reinforcement of learning. It is also possible for children to have well-developed social skills in one area but not in another. For example, they may be able to work co-operatively on a group project, but lack the self-confidence to approach a group of children in the playground. Social competence has many domains.
They find it difficult making and keeping friends. These children have the lower grade point averages. Two thirds have problems completing competency exams for their grade level. Forty percent fail one or more courses in a school year. They have a high absenteeism rate missing more than 20 days of school. Fifty percent end up dropping out of school. The building blocks of social competence * Basic interaction skills (e. g. , smiling, making eye contact, listening) * Entry/approach skills (how to approach an individual socially or join a group) * Maintenance skills (e. g. , how to share, take turns, follow rules, co-operate etc. * Friendship skills (e. g. , how to show appropriate affection, involve others in decision making, be inclusive, etc. ) * Conflict resolution (how to manage disagreements in a socially acceptable manner) * Empathy * Communication of needs and ideas * Sense of humor * Assertiveness (how to say no to engaging in dangerous or antisocial behavior, stand up for oneself, etc. ) How does a teacher teach student with these problems. According to McGrath, H. & Francey, S (1991,par 4), Although they do not receive the same attention in the classroom, in many ways social skills are just as important for success as academic skills.
The following are some tips on how to teach social skills to children, both at school and in the home. Teachers need to set goals and expectations. According to McGrath, H. & Francey, S (1991,par 5), Children often need to be given direct, explicit instructions about how to behave in specific social situations. For example, a child may need to be told that it is important to say “hello” back when somebody greets them, or to smile when approaching a child to ask to join in a game.
Of course, this kind of instruction is provided all of the time by parents and teachers who remind children to say “thank you” or not to interrupt when someone else is talking. However, there are often significant gaps in this instruction. For example, while most children are instructed to say “please” and “thank you”, fewer are explicitly told how to be a “good sport” (“Don’t comment on another player’s poor moves or bad luck. Don’t taunt someone for losing. Accept bad luck without complaining. ” etc. ) Learning these skills is not easy, and most children will need to be old the same information many times before they learn it fully. First teachers need to stop inappropriate behavior and increase appropriate behavior. They have to define their expectations. Most problems occur when there are discrepancies between what the teachers expect and what the students do, if you want to increase acceptable behavior in the classroom it is necessary for the teachers to be clear, fair and consistent on what is acceptable behavior when in class. The teacher has to understand that each student is different and have different situations.
When children experience social problems, such as conflict with a friend, or rejection by a group, it is often tempting for parents to jump in and try to solve the problem for them. However, except in situations involving bullying or other unacceptable behavior, it is generally better to assist children to solve their own social problems rather than intervening directly. This can be done by asking children to think of ways that they might be able to deal with the situation, providing feedback on their ideas, and perhaps offering some suggestions, then encouraging them to try out the best options.
In this way, children can learn a sense of social mastery through finding that they can deal with a difficult situation without direct adult help. Setting rules are always helpful for all students. The rules should be reasonable. The rules should be developed by teacher, parents, students and principal. Rules should be objective and stated in all behavioral terms. The rules should not be a long list of rules but short and clear. Have as few rules as possible. Consider what is important and stay away from pettiness. It is important to keep the rules posted in the classroom. Review the rules on a needed basis and discuss changes.
This will be effective in controlling behavioral problems. Children with disabilities and behavior problems are the fastest growing population of special education students. There are different kinds of disabilities: * ADD/ADHD * AUTISM AND ASPERGER’S * BEHAVIOR AND EMOTIONAL * GIFTEDNESS * LEARNING DISABLD * MENTALLY DISABLED * PHYSICAL DISABILITIES ADD/ADHD attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is also referred to ADD or ADHD — is a biological, brain based condition that is characterized by poor attention and distractibility and/or hyperactive and impulsive behaviors.
It is one of the most common mental disorders that develop in children. Symptoms may continue into adolescence and adulthood. If left untreated, ADHD can lead to poor school/work performance, poor social relationships and a general feeling of low self esteem. AUITISM is a severe developmental disorder that begins at birth or within the first two-and-a-half years of life. Most autistic children are perfectly normal in appearance, but spend their time engaged in puzzling and disturbing behaviors which are markedly different from those of typical children.
Less severe cases may be diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) or with Asperger’s Syndrome. These children typically have normal speech, but they have many “autistic” social and behavioral problems. BEHAVIOR AND EMOTIONAL IS usually when somebody can’t control their emotions or behavior. It has many levels from serious such as temper tantrums and violence toward self or others to mild such as mood swings and sulking excessively. To define it I would say behavior and emotional problems are usually recognized when others find it difficult to interact with a person or child because of their emotional and behavior problems.
It’s a big umbrella and can be caused by many factors, mental illness, hormones, brain damage. Many things come under it so you may wish to look up mental health issues. GIFTEDNESS is the broadest and most comprehensive. It is used by many school districts. It speaks of talent, which includes all areas of a child’s life academic, artistic, athletic, and social. Most schools limit their definition and their programs to academics, but it is important to realize on performing and accomplishment. LEARNING AND DISABLED vary from person to person.
One person with learning disabilities may not have the same kind of learning problems as another person with learning disabilities. One person may have trouble with reading and writing. Another person with learning disabilities may have problems with understanding math. Still another person may have trouble in each of these areas, as well as with understanding what people are saying. MENTALLY DISABLED persons diagnosed as having significantly lower than average intelligence and considerable problems in adapting to everyday life or lacking independence in regard to activities of daily living.
PHYSICAL DISABILITIES physical impairment refers to a broad range of disabilities which include orthopedic, neuromuscular, cardiovascular and pulmonary disorders. People with these disabilities often must rely upon assertive devices such as wheelchairs, crutches, canes, and artificial limbs to obtain mobility. The physical disability may either be congenital or a result of injury, muscular dystrophy, multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, amputation, heart disease, pulmonary disease or more. Some persons may have hidden disabilities which include pulmonary disease, respiratory disorders, epilepsy and other limiting conditions.
Most children with disabilities require a special education service. Special education is physically or mentally handicapped children who cannot be taught in an normal classroom. First, special education needs to be a service, not a place, and as an essential part of a flexible general education that does not require singling children out for special services. All children should be allowed to whatever services they need, and this kind of education should not require highlighting children’s differences. Inclusion is the preferred method of placement for students with special needs.
Students with disabilities must be educated in ordinary education settings to the highest level appropriate in light of their needs, and rule out their exclusion unless education there cannot be achieved adequately even with appropriate additional aids and services. Students in inclusion need to be dynamic and not pacified. Children should be positive to make choices as often as possible. A good teacher will agree to students some time but the most powerful learning stems from taking risks and learning from mistakes.
General education with support is important when teaching children with specific learning disabilities. Children with learning disabilities such as ADD/ADHD, Autism and behavior and emotional disabilities can have general education with support. In this classroom there are at least three teachers who give support to the main teacher as well as support the children. Parental involvement is essential. Students with disabilities must be free to learn at their own speed and have accommodations and other assessment strategies in place to meet their istinctive needs. Students need to experience success and their learning goals need to be precise. DISABILTIES IN SPECIAL EDUCATION DISABILITY| REQUIRES SPEC ED SERVICES| INCLUSIVE| GENERAL EDUCATION WITH SUPPORT| ADD/ADHD| X| | X| AUTISM AND ASPERGER’S| X| | X| BEHAVIOR AND EMOTIONAL| X| | X| GIFTEDNESS| X| | X| LEARNING DISABLED| X| X| | MENTALLY DISABLED| X| X| | MULTIPLED DISABILITIES| X| X| | PHYSICAL DISABILITIES| X| X| | SPEECH AND HEARING| X| X| | Children’s with learning disabilities is the fastest growing population of special education students.
Require Spec Ed Services Most children with a disability require a special education service. Special education is physically or mentally handicapped children whose needs cannot be met in an ordinary classroom. Inclusive Children that have multiple, physical and speech and hearing disabilities require inclusive structure. Inclusive education is a process of removing barriers and enabling all students, including previously excluded groups, to learn and participate effectively General Education with support
Children with specific learning disabilities such as ADD/ ADHD, Autism and behavior and emotional disabilities can have general education with support. In this classroom there is at least 3 teachers who give support to the main teacher. Resources Education for Children with Emotional and Behavior Disorders http://www. redorbit. com/news/education/436674/education_for_children_with_emotional_and_behavioral_disorde rs_in_kenya/ Helping Teachers Engage Students Author: Annette Brinnkham Gary Forlini Ellen Williams The Inclusion Classroom ttp://specialed. about. com/od/integration/a/inclusional. htm Separate and Better: A Special Public School Class for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders http://www. informaworld. com/smpp/content~db=all? content=10. 1207/S15327035EX1003_1 McGrath, H. & Francey, S. (1991). Friendly Kids, Friendly Classrooms : Teaching Social Skills and Confidence in the Classroom. Melbourne : Longman Cheshire http://www. embracethefuture. org. au/resiliency/index. htm? http://www. embracethefuture. org. au/resiliency/social_skills. htm