Historically, children with impairments were socialised into low expectations of success in education. Their educational provision has been designed for special educational needs that segregate them from the society and the mainstream education system. A neo Marxist approach maintains that the development and maintenance of the special school system is little more than “a pernicious system of social control” (ford et al 1982:82). The 1944 Education Act stated that as far as possible disabled children should be educated in mainstream schools.
However it encouraged the local education authorities to make separate provisions for children with impairments (Tomlinson, 1982). The argument from within the disabled people’s movement is that the special education system is essential to the disabling process and therefore must be abolished. Special colleges and schools continue the subordination of disabled people. The 1988 Education Reform Act introduced a national curriculum, which benefits disabled children. Inclusive education means that all students in a school, regardless of their strengths or weaknesses in any area become part of the school community.
They are included in the feeling of belonging among other students, teachers, and support staff. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and its 1997 amendments make it clear that schools have a duty to educate children with disabilities in general education classrooms. The main benefits to inclusive education are that friendships will develop between disabled and non disabled children, reduce or remove the stereotypes attached to disability, experience a more varied curriculum. Inclusive education will also allow the disabled child to have more self-confidence.
The ethos of inclusive education is to facilitate meaningful opportunities for all children regardless of impairment. (Freeman and Gray, 1989). Overall the British education system has failed disabled children by not providing the same educational opportunities as the non disabled child as they have made special provisions to help reduce the disabled child’s isolation but in turn has just contributed to the disabled child’s isolation. In conclusion a disabled person is disabled due to society and not because of their impairment or impairments.
Society can not adapt to the needs of different individuals and therefore find the disabled person a problem. “If disabled people are characterised by their separation from the normal population, specific representation may be both contested and contradictory. ” (Barnes 1999 pg37). The only way in which to change societies attitude towards the disabled person is to educate them. Also society can concentrate on the persons ability rather that concentrating on the persons inability to carry out activities.
By empowering an individual we are therefore saying that they did not have that power in the first place so we have to be very careful in the approach that is taken to enable their abilities rather than making the choices for that person. Self advocacy is therefore a better way of helping the disabled person make the choices that they wish to do so as they are doing it for themselves instead of someone else trying to do it for them. People can only enable a disabled person if that disabled person sees their impairment as being disabling.
According to Finkelstein an impairment is “the outcome of an oppressive relationship between people with… impairment’s and the rest of society. “(Finkelstein 1980:47). Case Studies This part of the essay will look at how personal society services enables the service user or whether it in fact disables the service user. The essay will give examples of service users who use the enable project. Personal society services (PSS) works with many different service user groups to try improve their quality of life: The organisation works: With People with Mental Health Needs.
With People with Learning Difficulties With People with Physical Impairments There are many different services provided to the service users within PSS. The Adult Family Placement provides support to adults who are unable to live independently. Special carers make their homes available on a short-term, long term or sessional basis. The basis of this service is to enable clients to experience an ordinary domestic environment. The services can provide a short break or holiday for people with mental health problems or respite for their families.
Merseyside-based projects include long-term placements for older people with mental health problems and Choice, which is an innovative short-term alternative to emergency hospital admission for clients in crisis. PSS runs community centres, which offer a range of listening, counselling, information, advice and support services to people in Liverpool with mental health problems. The centres give people the chance to talk about their personal difficulties or emotional problems with a trained listener.
Drop-in sessions give people the chance to get involved in a range of activities including discussions, arts and crafts and alternative therapies. Training is also available in anxiety management, confidence building, relaxation and mental health awareness. PSS runs several supported living projects in Liverpool and Knowsley – houses designed around the needs of adults with mental illness. The houses are owned by local housing associations, with PSS managing them and providing up to 24-hour support. The aim is to maximise the independence of tenants and to help them live within the community.
Tenants are also encouraged to participate in the running of the houses. There is also a service called enable offered to service users who find it extremely difficult to get out into society because of their disability this offers them to participate in activities on their own or with other on a regular basis. For example going swimming.
Bibliography 1. Barnes, Colin,1999, Exploring disability: a sociological introduction, polity press 2. Barnes, Colin,1991, Disabled people in Britain and discrimination: a case for anti-discrimination legislation, C Hurst ; co.ltd 3. Brading, Jean,1996, Disability discrimination:
A practical guide to the new law, Kogan page ltd 4. Hales, Gerald, 1996,Beyond disability towards an enabling society, Sage publication ltd. 5. Isherwood Millicent M,1986, coping with disability, W;R Chambers ltd Edinburgh 6. Johnstone, David, 2001, An introduction to disability studies, David Fulton publishers London. 7. Lakey, Jane, 1994 Caring about independence, policy studies institute. 8. Marks, Deborah, 1999, Disability: controversial debates and psychosocial perspectives, Routledge. 9.
Oliver, Michael, 1999, Social work with disabled people, Macmillan press ltd. 10. Patrick, Donald L, 1989, Disablement in the community, Oxford medical publications 11. Silvers, Anita, 1998 Disability, Difference, Discrimination: perspectives on justice in bio ethics and public policy, Rowman ; Littlefield publishers, inc. Css 324 Suzanne Clayton Show preview only The above preview is unformatted text This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Social Work section.