Existing possibilities of attracting tourists for mountaineering, winter sports, fishing, hunting, beaches, spas national parks, game sanctuaries, national monument sites and shrines, folk traditions and customs, pilgrimages, festivals and sporting events should likewise be developed and protected. Insurance of Protection:Emphasis was laid on the importance of ensuring protection, not only for monuments, archaeological remains and buildings of historical, cultural or architectural importance, but also for the customs, traditions, art and folklore of indigenous people. The conference also agreed that a developing country which proposed to set up a national tourist organisation should consider obtaining a preliminary survey in order to assess clearly what positive tourist attractions existed, and how they could most effectively be developed within the limits of the funds available.
Help to Beginner Countries:The conference recommendations had far-reaching implications as far as planned development of tourism was concerned. All member states and the specialised agencies of the United Nations were called upon to consider and implement as appropriate the recommendations contained in the report of the conference. These were of particular interest to those countries which were just beginning to develop tourism. Until quite recently tourism was principally a feature of, and was largely confined to the developed countries. Many of the developing countries saw the possibilities in tourism development. Encouraged by the conference Vs, many developing countries introduced tourism development programmes. The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) in the year 1965 also emphasised the promise which tourism held out for the developing countries.
For some countries, tourism offers a major opportunity since it provides employment for many stimulates investment and is an important source of foreign exchange. The third International Union of Official Travel Organisations (IUOTO) Travel Research Seminar held in Frague, Czechoslovakia, in 1964 examined in great detail the many problems involved in the developement of the tourist industry and concluded that planning, whether at national, regional or local level, was indispensable and that all tourist planning should be based on two type of preliminary surveys: (i) detailed survey of the characteristics of the area being considered for development and, in particular, of its tourist resources; (ii) studies of future customers based on surveys and forecasts. Careful Planning:Careful planning is a prerequisite for complete success of any programme. The hap hazard development in many countries had made the planners aware of the need for planning of tourism development based on scientific research.
Any country, whether it already has an active flourishing tourist industry or is thinking of development a tourist industry, has to decide on many crucial issues before launching tourism development. The official government agencies, especially in the developing countries, have to be extra cautious as they cannot afford to waste scarce resources on development plans which do not bring benefits. The governments in these countries have to decide on the following issues: (i) Rate of growth of the tourism sector, whether it wishes to encourage mass tourism or develop it more slowly, gradually and selectively; (ii) The importance of the tourism sector to the national economy and how its development and growth are to fit in with the plans for national, regional and local development; (iii) The respective roles which it assigns to public and private sectors in the development of the industry; (iv) The respective roles to be played by domestic and foreign capital. Whether the foreign investments are to be encouraged in case the country’s financial resources are limited; (v) Decision as to whether the tourist industry should be treated in the same way as other industries or whether the peculiar character of the industry is given special treatment; (v) Decision as to whether tourist industry is to be developed on a continuous long-term basis or only as a short-term arrangement to overcome the trade deficit.
Economic Cooperation and Development:The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in a seminar held at Estoril, focused its attention on all the above issues. According to the report “much of the discussion turned on the fact that tourism is by its nature somewhat different from other sectors of the economy, since it is an industry based on movement of people rather than goods. For this reason it is particularly susceptible to subjective considerations quite apart from the play of the economic forces. Political and social pressures, psychological attitudes, changes of fashion, may all influence the course of tourism development markedly and unpredictably. It is essential therefore that tourism industry should be as flexible as possible to be able to adapt to changing conditions and requirements.” The discussions at the OECD seminar also drew attention to the fact that tourism involves several considerations which are essentially of a non-economic nature. The report of the seminar stated: “Tourism often has significant cultural implications (for example, the restoration of ancient monuments); and political (the improvement of international understanding).
” The fact that tourism is by its nature somewhat different from other sectors of the economy makes it more necessary that there should be careful planning. This is much more important for the developing countries which cannot afford to waste scarce resources. The various issues involved in the planning and development of tourism especially in the developing countries show how necessary it is for these countries to adopt a monetary policy, a policy of agriculture, of public works, of health, of transport, etc. as different elements of its national economic plan, and it should on the same grounds, adopt a specific policy of tourism development. Coordinated Planning:The peculiar characteristics of tourism make it particularly beneficial in terms of general economic development. From this follows the necessity of adopting a policy, which will take into account all the country’s economic sectors which have a direct or indirect interest in its expansion.
On the other hand, tourism, as an integral part of specific sector of the general plan of economic development, can only prosper within the context of the country’s overall progress even though it calls for its own particular policy. Tourism like other economic activities flourishes best when it fits into context of general economic policies and programmes designed to lead to the optimum growth of the economy of a country as a whole. This calls for coordination. Coordination between tourism planning and the general plan must, therefore, be based on coordination of efforts in all the sectors concerned. Tourism policy must therefore be a global policy of development, taking into account the important implications, affecting the progress of this activity. In addition, the overall tourism development plan must take into account the social and cultural components of the phenomenon, as these also acquire prominence in the development process.
The planning of tourism, whether at the national or the regional level, must be regarded as an integral, and, therefore, coordinated part of the country’s general economic and social planning. This coordinated approach has a direct bearing on the success of the tourism industry, more so in a developing country. It is also to be remembered that tourism is not one business but involves many industries and a whole range of complex processes. A plan for tourism can only survive and serve its stated purposes, if there is coordination among all the processes.
A first requisite is the need to ensure that the government organs specifically responsible for the tourist sector play their important role, which is that of cooperating with all those governmental departments responsible for other branches concerned with the expansion of tourism. The principal aim of the tourist plan is to arrive at a balanced growth of demand and supply. In other words to arrive at an optimum harmonisation of the inter-relations between the two poles of market, while avoiding the creation of serious economic, territorial or social imbalances. Hence, the basis of planning in a sector must be viewed globally and mutually arranged with the country’s economic and social development and with the overall policy of planning, for the territory in which the location of tourist centres assumes primary importance.