The Union Minister of Labour functions as Chairman of the Corporation whereas Director General, as Chief Executive, discharges the duty of running the day-to-day administration. A standing committee representing all stakeholders is elected from the body corporate for managing affairs of the Scheme and monitoring the progress of implementation of various decisions and policies from time to time. The Medical Benefit Council, a statutory body, advises the Corporation on matters related to administration of medical benefit under the ESI Scheme. The Central headquarters of the corporation is located at New Delhi. For the purpose of coverage, revenue collection, extension of the scheme to new classes of establishments, implementation of the scheme in new areas, coordination with State Governments and general administration, the corporation has established regional and sub-regional offices across the country which is mostly located in State capitals.
The medical facilities are provided through a wider network of ESI Dispensaries and Clinics, besides the ESI Hospitals.