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What is the protocol for determining if the cause of the incident is criminal or not?

The police policies and practices of determining whether the cause of incidence is criminal may differ from one jurisdiction to the other. These protocols must be considered in the conjunction with the other applicable policies and forms, as well as the other remedial legislation. Keeping the casualty informed and been involved in the investigation process is significant in any type of offence, especially in the cases involving spousal or partner abuse (Aydin, 2014).

How would you be required to act with regard to victim management if the situation were determined to be criminal?

If the cause of the incident was determined to be criminal, you are supposed to ensure that the victims get compensation from the government. The program of victim’s compensation across the nation offers significant financial assistance to the victims involved in the criminal violence. The victims of the violence crimes may suffer physical injuries, emotional trauma, and financial stress. Recovering from the abuse or violence is very difficult without having to be frustrated about medical cost payment and the counseling, or even about how to recover the lost income maybe due to death or disability (Burke, 2014).
Suspect identification

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A method, which is used by the criminals to commit the offense sometimes it, is very helpful in identifying the suspect, as the majority offenders frequently commit offenses using the similar methods.

Burglar’s method of the entry into the house, type of the property stolen, or kind of the deception practiced helps much in identifying the true criminal. The police usually present the victims or the witness who believes that they can easily recognize the offender with the album comprising the photographs of a huge number of already known criminals. The suspect who is usually identified in this manner is asked to be involved in the lineup of the people with same characteristics, from which witnesses are being asked to select whom they think is the suspect. Nevertheless, the researchers have long known that the eyewitnesses are often unreliable and that many wrongful convictions have been an outcome of faulty eyewitness identifications (Aydin, 2014).

Predicting further criminal attacks

There exist two broad categories, of the means, by which further attack in the crime scene, can be predicted. The first method is in a controlled environment (via the clinical analysis), and via analysis of the statistics based on previous crime and criminal types. The final type studies the past offenders and what is usually known regarding their offences. It also tries to determine the offender’s correctness for release (Wood, 2014).

Both of the methods have their advantages, and understandability. The both methods have potentially negative effects for the society into which the person will be released and for individuals themselves. For instance, in case of criminal violence offender assessment in low population is made, we might see unacceptable level of the false positives. The capability to label somebody as dangerous might be expressed as the most easily by contrasting the conclusion of statistical and clinical analysis to the concrete behavior of the person. The result is usually analyzed as false negative, false positive, true negative or true positive.

The false positive wrongly identifies individual as the future risk when in realism they are not. False negative refers to when a person is indomitable not to act dangerously in the future, but in fact, they in realism do. True positive is right assessment that the person would be dangerous, while the true negative is rightful forecast that the individual will not be dangerous.

Tools and personnel for removing danger

Due to the unique nature of the confined space rescues, a need for the specialized equipment necessary for performing a secure, save, and successful operation are very important. One of the actual pieces of the equipments used in the confined space is method of ventilation for dispersing collected dangerous gases and introduces a fresh clean air into the environment. An armlet is usually the first equipment used to perform the rescue mission, as opposed to ventilator that is used to organize and prepare the environment for the rescue. An armlet is a kind of cloth strap, which is used to wrap tightly around the ankle or waist of an injured individual. Once the band is tied around the foot or hand, rescuers, tightening all around the leg or the arm and pulling the casualty out of confined space, pull its attach rope (Wood, 2014).

What equipment and personnel are needed for on-site triage of victims?

Most of the casualty incidents is any incident that the emergency medical services resources, like the equipments and personnel, are besieged by number and the severity of victims. For instance, an incident where two people party is responding to motor vehicle collision with the three badly injured people can be considered an accumulation of victim’s incident(Wood, 2014).. The citizen more normally recognizes the occurrences such as the bus collision, building collapses, earthquakes, and the other large-scale occurrences as the mass casualty incidents. The equipments required in triage victims include the first aid kits, antiseptics, and the cloths strap.

Protocol to identify and manage those in need of immediate medical assistance

There are several protocols, which are used in managing, those who deserve immediate attendance in incidents of danger or accidents. The first step is the preparation of the medical emergencies by the purchase of emergency supplies. The physicians need to select the emergency medicines and the equipments, which reflect the spectrum of the anticipated emergencies. For instance, the most common emergencies, which occur, include shock, asthma, cardiac arrest, and seizure (Reyna, 2014). The doctors should put into consideration all these factors when selecting equipments, medications, and additional emergency provisions like neck collars and bandages.

What types of potential behaviors should you look for to identify traumatized victims?

The people who have undergone the traumatic events would frequently appear disoriented or shaken. They might not respond to the conversations as when they are normal, and would usually appear withdrawn or absence when speaking. Another informer sign of a person, who is traumatized victim, is anxiety (Reyna, 2014). Anxiety because of trauma may manifest in the problem such as edginess, mood swings, irritability, night terrors, and poor concentration.

What methods will you use to reconcile the traumatized survivors with normally recognized behavior?

  • There are various methods, which are used to help a traumatized victim to recover from the trauma. These methods are discussed below.
  • Bereavement Counseling: in this method, the people are counseled and served by the teachers.
  • Helping Skills for the Outreach Worker: these skills provides a way to show the people that actually you are paying very close attention, that you are actively listening and that
    you care. The good and better the helper listens, the higher the person may share. This is caring relationship and expands via mutual respect.
  • Personal Impact of Grief: the experience of grief affects all aspects of being of the person. The demonstrations which are used are more exaggerated where there has been rapid, an unexpected death. With intensification, the time to process reactions would often be longer.

How would you obtain field interviews for follow-up later from victims?

The individuals who were involved in the incidents, after the recovery, they usually identify themselves either by coming forward to find protection or to seek remedy for the past violations of the human rights. Still it is normal for a victim and witness to feel it is dangerous or useless for them to actually identify themselves. For a specific type of violations, for instance sexual abuse or the other forms of violence against women, the casualties’ unwillingness to report violation could be even much greater. It might also be essential, hence, for the Victims to be pro-active instead of passive in deciding whom to interview the potential weaknesses (Reyna, 2014)
How interview can be applied to peoples with psychological trauma?

The research in the area of psychological trauma brings to open numerous complex ethical issues. This comprises of groundless lexicalization of agony, retraumatization of the survivors, and the morality of investigating the perpetrators of shock, neglecting to offer appropriate involvement. We study and discuss some of these problems against the setting of study of trauma and the recent work of reconciliation and truth commission in that country (Reyna, 2014).

While research on psychological trauma may of course have significant shortcomings, it is welcome since it fosters awareness of trauma and facilitates appropriate intervention. Indeed, good medical research involves good clinical principles and fosters good clinical practices, and so the endeavors of trauma researcher and clinician go hand in hand.

How would you establish a notification and meeting assembly point for victims and their loved ones?

The notification and the meeting assembly point for the victims can be established by starting supporting groups. In the changing to their lives, and after the demise of their loved ones, several survivors find it very helpful to actually share their feelings with the others who are in same situation ((Burke, 2014).
What is the protocol for establishing a temporary morgue unit for fatalities and identification of the dead by family members?

Mogue services are actually organized to support highest standards for the morgue operations, data management, and decedent identification. This is significant to ensuring the accurate, efficient, and the timely identification of departed.

Guide for reducing stress among first responders.

The stress management and prevention must address both the organization and the employees. Being able to adopt preventive measures allows both the organization and the workers to expect shape responses and the stressors, instead of simply reacting to the crisis when it happens. The crisis response team encompasses the first responders, public health employees, utility workers and the transportation worker.

A guide for managing the stress in the first respondent provides a foundation for the stress management strategies for the crisis response of managers and workers. The strategies are good enough so that person and the groups can choose those that the best fit in their circumstances and needs. Education regarding the stress and its Mitigation and prevention measures is an important aspect in understanding the stress cycle (Burke, 2014). As suggested by the scholars, the first respondent may at sometimes give unreliable information depending on many factors. For instance, he may not give genuine information due to the fear of being killed by the criminal. To reduce stress among the first respondent, they needs to be assured of security and their resources protected as well.

The stress is the elevation in the person’s state of provocation or willingness caused by the demand or stimulus. As the provocation of the stress increases, performance and health normally improve. Within the manageable levels, the stress can assist us sharpen attention and organize their bodies to survive the threatening situation (Gunderson, 2014).

Managing Stress Before, During, and After an Event

Anyone who experiences any kind of disaster is somehow touched by it, including the managers and the crisis response workers. A better planning can limit –psychological and health consequences, minimize the daily life disruptions, and then contribute to empowerment of the personal experience on the disaster ((Burke, 2014)…

The nation’s substance abuse, mental health, medical, and public health and the emergency response to the system face many challenges in meeting the behavior needs due to the disasters. The behavior management and the effects of disaster require different interventions at the post event, event, and pre-event phases (Gunderson, 2014). .


  • Ayden, D. (2014). The Interpretation of Genocidal Intent under the Genocide Convention and the Jurisprudence of International Courts. Journal Of Criminal Law, 78(5), 423-441.
  • Burke, R. V., Berg, B. M., Vee, P., Morton, I., Nager, A., Neches, R., & … Upperman, J. S. (2012). APSA paper: Using robotic telecommunications to triage pediatric disaster victims. Journal Of Pediatric Surgery, 47221-224.


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