Industrial Psychology – Relationship of Leadership, Morale, and Productivity



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How Leadership Styles Affect Productivity By E. Brown There are 4 primary leadership styles, many of which you can find within most businesses or organizations around the world. These styles are: Dictatorial, Authoritative, Consultative, and Participative. Each of the leadership styles have impact on reforming and/or creating company culture. There are short and long-term affects of each style. For instance, the authoritative style may produce great results in a short amount of time. However, excessive use of authority will decrease productivity in the long-term.

People either get fed up and leave or fall into a malaise of hum-drum repetitive tasks without creativity and innovation. All the while, a participative style will be unproductive in the short-term. But, the longer this style of leading, the more productive a company can become. Many leaders never make it to a point of high productivity. They give up before the participative style kicks in and the company starts to escalate. They see the initial drop in production and cannot wait long enough for the true results. Do not give up.

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Though many leaders and managers get discouraged seeing a drop in productivity when transitioning to a participative approach — productivity will come over time. People will see they have opportunities to create and innovate and their production becomes greater than before. Three Keys There are three keys that determine your leadership style. 1. How you view and use authority 2. How you view and use human resources 3. How you view and relate to people The more you keep control the more authoritative your style the more you share control, the more participative your style of leadership.

Questions for Reflection Ask yourself these questions to see if you (or those around you) are moving toward a more authoritative or a more participative leadership style. – Are employees involved in the planning process? – What percentage of total employees know the vision and goals for the company? – Do employees feel ownership? – Do employees feel trusted? – Is information readily exchanged between departments? – Is information received from others truly accurate? – Is problem solving delegated? – Is there regular duplication of effort? – Is there an inordinate amount of time spent correcting mistakes? Are relationships between leaders and subordinates good most all the time? – Are departmental relations good most all the time? – How rare is conflict? – What is the company attitude toward authority? – Are conflicts ignored? – Do people fear failure? – How do employees feel toward the organization? Source: file:///F:/Psychology/How%20Leadership%20Styles%20Affect%20Productivity%20%C2%AB%20WeirdGuy. htm How small-unit leadership impact morale Because morale is an expression of how well your unit has incorporated organizational norms and values morale is critical part of your leadership.

First, you should seek clarity in understanding your organizations norms and values. You should understand how your organizations mission, goals or objectives support the norms and values. After it is clear to you, express it to your unit. Use your roll call time to incorporate a discussion on norms and values. To lead a small unit you must be a story-teller. When you train or debrief during roll call emphasize how actions reflected your organizations norms and values. Be specific. Every action can be interpreted through your organizations norms and values.

Let your people know specifically how their actions reflect positively or negatively on the overall norms and values. The next time your offer praise consider that you are not praising the action so much as praising how much the action reflects the norms and values. In law enforcement, your unit is performing much of its critical work without the benefit of your on scene leadership. The only way you can influence them at critical moments is by reinforcing their understanding and commitment to your organizations norms and values. It must be in their heart and only you can put it there.

You dont have any control over outside influences. You are going to face the implementation of an unpopular change in the norm. Somebody is going to dictate a new policy or procedure. While you cant control the outside influence you can control your units interpretation of it. Minor changes are fairly simply. Introduce the new policy or procedure, provide your employees with as much background on why the change is necessary, train them and then follow-up with praise or sanction. Larger or dramatic changes are more difficult. As with smaller changes to the norm, you must first seek clarity.

Find out as much as you can why the change is necessary. Make sure you know as much as possible. I am always honest with my people. When I dont like something or think a change is going to be difficult I admit it. As a follower, I have sat through too many gratuitous roll calls where the sergeant or lieutenant is giving us happy talk. I recommend you say something like, I dont like this anymore than you do. But, this is how we are going to do it. This admission is actually an emphasis of the norm of obedience to orders and the value of you place on it.

After you have made this admission, adopt the new norm and place the appropriate value on it. Dont undermine yourself or your organization by rolling your eyes or somehow expressing that you dont believe the new change should be implemented. As with the minor change, provide your employees with background information, training and follow through. It is very likely that by addressing difficult issues head on you will improve morale. Your leadership is a reflection on your ability to maintain alignment between your unit and the larger organization.

By praising actions as an expression of organizational norms and values you will be providing your employees with leadership during whatever situation they face. Morale is your job. Source: file:///F:/Psychology/LEADERSHIP%20-%20Morale. htm Organizational Leadership Report On Increasing Business Productivity Copyright (c) 2007-2011 Sharif Khan A Journey into the Heroic Environment: A Personal Guide to Creating a Work Environment Built on Shared Values, 3rd Edition Rob Lebow (SelectBooks, New York 2004 1590790618) $21. 5 REVIEWED BY SHARIF KHAN Living in what Alan Greenspan called an era of “infectious greed” with corporate titans facing serious jail time, Ex-WorldCom CEO, Bernard Ebbers, leading the way facing life behind bars, and sobering laws in place such as the Sarbanes-Oxley Act making ethics and values increasingly important components in every organization, it would do well to learn how to help organizations create heroic environments based on higher standards of excellence.

Mr. Rob Lebow, former Director of Corporate Communications for Microsoft, with over twenty years experience helping companies implement his Shared Values Process to create what he calls, a Freedom-Based Workplace, attempts to do just that for readers in his book, “A Journey into the Heroic Environment. “

Resurrecting an abandoned, ‘failed,’ 1972 study, undertaken by graduate students from the social psychology department of a major United States university, with over 17 million survey responses from workers and managers in 40 countries and over 32 Standard Industrial Codes, that was not able to reveal any conclusive connection between job satisfaction and individual or organizational performance, Mr. Lebow’s research team started their own investigation.

Bringing a fresh perspective to the study, Lebow realized that the key to solving the mystery of overcoming cultural challenges to create exceptional levels of performance, was not going to be found in the hard numbers and statistics of the survey, but in the actual, literal comments of all the participants. Using this creative intelligence, Lebow indexed the most often addressed topics in all the discarded surveys by country. And the revelation was that all the surveys from the different countries mentioned the same subjects.

This became the Lebow Company’s 20th Century Rosetta Stone that finally cracked the code to the secrets of unlocking high performance that were embedded in the previously undecipherable 17 million worldwide surveys that the original research missed. Under the scrutiny of this new lens, the Lebow research group discovered that it was Values, not job satisfaction issues, which resided at the core between performance and what managers and workers were really looking for.

Lebow’s research suggested that there were eight values that all people respected throughout the world regardless of race, religion, nationality, industry, gender, educational level, or organizational status. Furthermore, the Lebow research group concluded: “that these eight Shared Values… represent the major factors that contribute not only to job satisfaction and employee morale, but to an organization’s performance, competitiveness, speed to change, innovation at every level, willingness to learn new things, and overall operational success. That] this was the universal Cultural Return On Investment (ROI) linking people to performance. ” While the author does not mention exactly how he came to this revolutionary conclusion, he claims that the correlation between organizational performance and these Shared Values has been tested and validated with over 2,300 organizational sites. These universal Shared Values which Lebow calls The Eight Principles of the Heroic Environment(R) are as follows: 1. Treat others with uncompromising truth. 2. Lavish trust on your associates. 3. Mentor unselfishly (and be open to mentoring from anyone). . Be receptive to new ideas, regardless of their origin. 5. Take personal risks for the organization’s sake. 6. Give credit where it’s due. 7. Do not touch dishonest dollars. (Be honest and ethical in all matters). 8. Put the interests of others before your own. Source: file:///F:/Psychology/Article%20%20Organizational%20Leadership%20Report%20On% 20Increasing%20Business%20Productivity. htm Organizational Culture Affects Employee Morale and Productivity Much of this issue stems from practices embedded within an organizational culture affecting employee morale and productivity. These include:

Leadership not serving as exemplars—Some leaders today are narcissists, demeaning and ruthless. More importantly, leaders’ salaries can exceed employee pay by 425 times the average worker! Leaders need to act in harmony with employees and ensure equal treatment of all, like the organixational cultures of companies such as McDonalds, FedEx and UPS. Little or no accountability—The U. S. economic system is currently in financial turmoil and no one is being held accountable. Employees need to know that mistakes may count for learning, but criminals are punished for repeat offenses.

Career planning and succession planning is null—Simply put, there is no succession planning. Most CEOs and senior managers join an organization from competitive industries and companies. Whatever happened to the mailroom climb? Too many silos and departmental infighting—Companies are in business for one reason: to create clients. End the infighting and focus on the most vital asset! When the fighting ends (and everybody understands their reason for being employed) perhaps harmony will arrive. Management Influences Organizational Culture Causes of low morale correlate in the organization, its culture and its management.

After 25 years of research in this area, we find five factors contributing to organizational morale. A study by the Corporate Leadership Council reveals the tremendous impact managers have on an employee’s level of commitment. It is imperative to note that individuals do not leave companies—they leave poor managers. Organizational mismanagement contributes to negative employee morale. As recently as 2006, the Gallup Organization estimated there were 32 million actively disengaged employees costing the American economy up to $350 billion per year in lost productivity.

Such loss includes absenteeism, tardiness and poor work. To dilute the productivity impact, research shows that taking time to build relationships with employees through personal interaction is a key step management can take to keep employee morale high. Employees need to feel trust and respect from their management. Employees desire feedback from management to understand that their work matters. Source: file:///F:/Psychology/5%20Causes%20of%20Low%20Employee%20Morale%E2%80%94And%20How%20To%20Avoid%20Them%20by%20Drew%20Stevens,%20PhD.. htm

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