It by society is assistance. The physical and



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It should be noted, however, that the important words in this sentence are not “the conscious effort of society,” but “assist the individual,” and the role of society in the education of individuals may not be ‘assistance’ in the real sense. When society merely determines what shall be taught and does nothing to assist the individual-when the individual is thought of as passive-guidance is not present except in a very indirect and remote way. In a sense the entire conscious effort of society to see that the individual reaches certain goals set up by society is assistance. The physical and social environment, which is selected and organised by society for the purpose of making sure that the child will develop properly, the curriculum, the textbooks, library, and laboratories, the organized life of the school, all are instrumental in making sure that the pupil develops in certain ways. This broader concept of education includes guidance only when the modern, progressive viewpoint of the place and function of the individual is accepted.

When only the goals of society are considered, we may have education but not guidance, for guidance implies assistance in making choices. These choices are individual ones and imply a compromise between, or a synthesis of, the needs of society and the needs of the individual. There are certain situations in education where the element of choice by the individual is prominent, and there are others in which it is not.

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