3. Preparing the trainee.
4. Presenting the operation.
5. Try out the trainees’ performance.
6. Follow-up or rewards and feedback.
1. Discovering or Identifying the Training Needs:
A training programme should be established only when it is felt that it would assist in the solution of specific problems. Identification of training needs must contain three types of analysis:
Determine the organisation’s goals, its resources and the allocation of the resources as they relate to the organisational goals.
Focuses on the task or job regardless of the employee doing the job.
Reviews the knowledge, attitudes and skills a person must acquire to contribute satisfactorily to the attainment of organisational objectives.
Armed with the knowledge of each trainee’s specific training needs, programmes of improvement can be developed that are tailored to these needs. The training programme then follows a general sequence aimed at supplying the trainee with the opportunity to develop his skills and abilities.
2. Preparing the Instructor:
The instructor is the key figure in the entire programme. He must know both the job to be taught and how to teach it.
The job must be divided into logical parts so that each can be taught at a proper time without the trainee losing perspective of the whole.
This becomes a lesson plan. For each part one should have in mind the desired technique of instruction, i.e., whether a particular point is best taught by illustration, demonstration or explanation.
3. Preparing the Trainee:
This step consists of:
(a) Putting the learner at ease.
(b) Stating the importance and ingredients of the job and its relationship to work flow;
(c) Explaining why he is being taught
(d) Creating interest and encouraging questions, finding out what the learner already knows about his job or other jobs.
(e) Explaining the ‘why’ of the whole job and relating it to some job the worker already knows
(f) Placing the learner as close to his normal position as possible and
(g) Familiarising him with the equipment, materials, tools and trade terms.
4. Presenting the Operations:
This is the most important step in a training programme. The trainer should clearly tell, show, illustrate and question in order to put across the new knowledge and operations. There are various alternative ways of presenting the operation namely, explanation, and demonstration etc.
An instructor mostly uses the method of explanation. In addition one may illustrate various points through the use of pictures, charts, diagrams and other training aids.
Demonstration is an excellent device when the job is essentially physical in nature. The following sequence of training may be followed:
(a) Explain the sequence of the entire job.
(b) Do the job step by step according to the procedure.
(c) Explain each step that he is performing.
(d) Have the trainee explain the entire job.
Instructions should be given clearly, completely and patiently; there should be an emphasis on key points and one point should be explained at a time.
The trainee should also be encouraged to ask questions in order to indicate that he really knows and understands the job.
5. Try out the Trainees’ Performance:
Under this, the trainee is asked to go through the job several times slowly, explaining each step. Mistakes are corrected, and if necessary, some complicated steps are done for the trainee the first time.
Then the trainee is asked to do the job, gradually building up skill and speed. As soon as the trainee demonstrates that he can do the job in the right way, he is put on his own. The trainee, through repetitive practice, will acquire more skill.
The final step in most training procedures is that of follow up. This step is undertaken with a view to testing the effectiveness of training efforts.
The follow up system should provide feedback on training effectiveness and on total value of training system. It is worth remembering that if the learner hasn’t learnt, the teacher hasn’t taught.