Thus, continuously upgrading and improving a destination’s



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Thus, tourism development became more and more a particular field of research in the economic planning undertaken by many countries. Tourism planning is the process leading to tourism development as it is through the planning process that the set developmental goals are achieved. Tourism planning is also a tool for addressing the various choices associated with tourism development.

It fosters achievements of tourism objectives and goals and also the assessment of tourism benefits and costs. Tourism development on the other hand is broader term which incorporates the planning, tourism infrastructure, management of tourism attractions and facilities and accommodation and transport services. Tourism planning is a continuous and long term process of preparing a destination for receiving tourists and also continuously upgrading and improving a destination’s attractiveness for the tourists. Community involvement in the entire process of tourism planning and development is crucial. In fact communities are the basic element of tourism. In recent times, communities have become conscious of their participation in the developmental process and have realized the need to be more Proactive and responsive in their approach to tourism. Tourism depends heavily upon the goodwill and acceptance of the local host communities.

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It is therefore necessary that planning must consider the desires and preferences of the local community whose participation is vital in tourism planning. Levels of Tourism Planning:Tourism planning may be at: 1. Individual level 2. Firm level 3.

Industry level 4. Economy as a whole. Type of Tourism Planning:

Spatial Tourism Planning:

In this type of tourism planning, the space as well as the environment of the tourist spot is scrutinised for creating good-quality infrastructure and quantities at that spot. Example: Corbett National park (Uttaranchal).

Sartorial Tourism Planning:

In this type of tourism planning, the region to be developed is divided into various broad sections, called Sectors. These sectors are allocated resources. Their social, economic and environmental needs are assessed. The final plan must take due care of these vital aspects.

Industrialisation and urbanisation should not harm the people of that sector. The natural resources of each sector must be preserved and protected. These sectors must also coordinate with one another to achieve tourism synergy. Example: South-east Asia is a popular tourism sector of the world.

Integrated Tourism Planning:

In this type of tourism planning, the sectors or parts of a tourists region are integrated so that the region becomes a hot destination.

Example: Tourist spots of Mount Titlis, Lucern, Geneva and other parts of Switzerland are integrated. These have been developed to provide packages to tourists so that they could visit all these spots when they visit the Swiss Alps.

Complex Tourism Planning:

1. State-level 2. National-level 3. Region-level When several regions are considered for the purpose of planning, it is called Complex Tourism Planning. These regions may be located far away from one anothe” these have to be developed on a comprehensive basis because the international tourist may be keen to visit all the tourist spots located in these regions. Example: Chaar Dham yatra from tourist spots in the Hindu Pantheon viz, Dwarka, Badrinath, Puri and Rameshwaram.

These are located in four different regions of India. The pilgrims visit all these spots of his religious devotion. He would leave no stone unturned to complete the tour. His problems and agencies must be mitigated through the activities of complex tourism planning.

Centralised Tourism Planning:

This type of planning is done by a single authority, usually the state or central government.

It intervenes in the tourism planning takes of a tourists spot because no other (private) player comes forward. Moreover, the demand of resources (to execute the tourism plan) may not be available with a private sector firm. However, nowadays, centralised planning is losing its sheen because the government is decentralising or privatising the tourism industry as well as the hotel industry. Example: Renovation of the Red Fort for exposing more areas of its promise to tourists.

Decentralised Tourism Planning:

This is currently in vogue. The parties, who are keen to develop a tourist spot, plan the execution of the activities of the spot. They take the assistance of the government as well as finance from the local, regional or national banks to do so. The government does not interfere in the planning and execution operations. But it gives support and money to such firms. The rates of taxation are less when the tourist spot is in its infancy stage. Later, when the tourist spot develops as a lucrative proposition, the government increases taxes and withdraws incentives or concessions. Example: The first private airport of India has been developed at Nedumbassary (TN) more are under process.

Urban and Rural Tourism Planning:

This is a new concept in tourism planning. In urban tourism planning, the emphasis is on creation of modern infrastructure, state-of-the-art facilities and luxurious spots. Some basis facilities namely electricity, water, road, transport, communications, Internet, entertainment etc, are already available.

Urban tourism planning exercises consolidate these vital elements of the infrastructure. Rural tourism planning became a rage during the last decade of the nineties when old havelis, buildings of the yore and village spot were converted into popular tourist destinations. There were no facilities at these places and everything had to be built from scratch, except those representatives of a rich culture and history.

Rambagh Palace (Jaipur), Lake Palace (Udaipur) and many other old buildings were converted into hotels and popular tourist spots. But these were far and few in number. The rural Hedland of India has received the attention of tourism planners only during the recent times. Luxury hotels are not within the reach of every traveler but sarai, havelis and tourist resorts in villages certain are. Thus, in order to develop rural tourist destinations, rural tourism planning is being done in India.

The first problem being faced by planners in this context is the creation of a healthy infrastructure. In India, there are power transmission lines in almost all the rural areas but no electricity in villages. There are wells in villages but no water. The water table has gone down to dangerously low depths. Health facilities are primitive. Tourism planners have to develop the basic infrastructure and then, add luxury to the product mix that they try to create at that (rural) tourist destination. They have been able to create fine rural tourist spots despite all odds. Examples: Tourist complexes or facilities at Sariska, Manesar and Orchha.

But many other forts and palaces, dotted across the 1254 UGC (NET) Tourism Administration and Management Specific length and breadth of India, can still be brought under the scrutiny of tourism planners. Example: The palace of Rani Laxmi Bai of Jhansi is a picture of neglect and apathy of the anthouties. It can be developed as a hot tourist destination. What the tourist planners need is the will to succeed. They also need financial support of the State and the private sector while executing such gargantuan tasks. If a tourist complex is built around the port (which is located in MP) it can become a hot tourist destination of central India.

It would be at par with the museum of Tipu Sultan at Sri Rangapatanam (near Mysore, Karnataka).