The physical shape and each part of the airport – terminals, check-ins, runways and retailers, for example – must be carefully designed to fulfil its current role, but also to meet with the demands of its future role. The layout of Brussels airport could be said to be by process5, where levels 0 and 1 are for trains and busses, 2 is arrivals, 3 is for departures and level 4 is for restaurants and shops. However, throughout the transit area there are micro operations like shops, restaurants, airlines and services. They are generally laid out in clusters at the points where the customers flow, but can be found all around the airport.
This reduces congestion, excessive backtracking and bottle necks and increases control. Planning The operations in an airport are dynamic systems. The inputs, processes and the outputs are all liable to change over time6. The demand changes according to seasons and will need to be forecasted, and in the aftermath of September 11, air travel and the security processes in an airport has change dramatically. It is the role of the Operations Director to make sure that these changes are planned and controlled for, or at least to have a certain degree of flexibility so that changes, like September 11, will be a smooth as possible.
Examples could be the need to plan for expansion of airport capacity, need to provide accessibility and support economic development in key areas, and need to minimise environmental damage to neighbouring communities. The planning needs to be7: Strategic – Long range, like location of airport. Tactical – Producing goods and services within the strategic plan. Operational – Day to day procedures. Control The OD needs to control the operation functions so that they meet with the objectives set in the planning stage. The network of micro operations must function together in order for the airport not to turn into chaos.
To the OD this requires feedback from the internal customers, suppliers and external customers so that he/she can alter or amend the running of the airport reflecting current circumstances8. Control will be important to the OD, in order for him/her to know how the operation is doing in relation to quality, time and cost (see above). Improvement Another responsibility of the Operations Director is to constantly seek to improve the operation. Since he/she is limited when it comes to improving the individual micro operations, he/she will be more concerned with improving the environment in which they operate.
Namely, the airport or macro operation. One way to do this is to benchmark Brussels performance to another company. In order for the OD to improve operations, he/she must first determine some performance measurements. These can be: Performance objective Measures Quality Number of complaints Customer satisfaction score Complaints in relation to number of airport visitors Speed Customer service query time Time from check in to loading of baggage Travellers processed through security Travellers checked in Dependability Number of delayed flights Schedule adherence Consistency of service Flexibility.
Time needed to increase number of internal customers Range of services Capacity Cost Variance against budget Utilisation of resources Labour productivity Efficiency Each area would give the OD a perspective of the performance of the operation, which would be useful to identify areas of improvement, or to monitor to extent of improvement9. Total Quality Management Despite its name, TQM is concerned with all aspects of operations performance10 (See above). It is as much a philosophy, as it is a set of quality and management tools aimed at increasing business and reducing losses due to wasteful practices.
It incorporates all areas and employees in the operation. It meets the needs of the airports customers, both internal and external. It develops systems and procedures which supports improvements and the continuous process of improvement. TQM is closely linked to the mission statement11 of the operating company of Brussels airport, which makes it important in order to achieve the goals and objectives of the organisation12. Processes must be managed and improved. This involves: Defining the process Measuring process performance (metrics) Reviewing process performance Identifying process shortcomings Analysing process problems.
Making a process change Measuring the effects of the process change Communicating both ways between manager and user It is important for BIAC to have standards in place in order to maintain their quality of services. One standard is ISO 9000, which is a set of standards for quality management systems that is accepted around the world. The standard, quality objectives, continual improvement, and monitoring of customer satisfaction provide the customer with increased assurances that their needs and expectations will be met. The cost-cutting measures in the airport (See above) did by no means affect the quality of services.
This was confirmed by the successful transition of the Facilities & Maintenance quality system from ISO 9002 to ISO 9001, which imposes stricter conditions13. Another standard is the EFQM model14, which recognises there are many approaches to achieving sustainable excellence in all aspects of performance and is based on the premise that excellent results with respect to performance, customers, people and society are achieved through leadership driving policy and strategy and is delivered through people partnerships and resources, and processes15.
Organisations like BIAC need to establish an appropriate management system. The EFQM Excellence model is a practical tool that would help them do this by measuring where they are on the path to excellence, helping them understand the gaps and then stimulating solutions. BIAC should use the outputs from the self-assessment as part of their planning process and use the model as a basis for operational review. CONCLUSION In this assignment we have looked at the many micro operations in Brussels airport and the airports key processes.
We have also explained the many responsibilities and implications this have on the Operations Director for BIAC. Finally, as part of his/hers responsibilities, we discussed quality standards, and in particular ISO 9000, and the EFQM model. Appendix I Different types of transformational processes. Physical Informational Possession Location Storage/ Physiological Psychological properties properties accommodation state state Material Contractors Retailers/ Baggage Environmental Processors Fire service Concessions handlers management Runway Fuel providers
Air freight maintenance Catering Information Public ATC Central Processors Relations Flight Info Databank Customer Security Customer Service Ancillary Hotels First Aid Noise pollution Processors Special Passport control services passenger Airlines care Check in Appendix II Facilities layout of Brussels Airport Transit Area (passengers only) Bars & Restaurants Shops Services Tickets and Airlines Airlines – Lounges Appendix III The EFQM Excellence Model16 1 Dilworth, James B. “Operations Management, Providing Value in Goods and Services” 3rd Edition.
Dryden Press 2000 2 See appendix I 3 Slack, Nigel. Chambers, Stuart. Johnston, Robert. “Operations Management” Financial Times Prntice-Hall 3rd Edition 2001 4 BIAC Annual Report 2003. http://www. brusselsairport. be/biac/ 5 See appendix II 6 Galloway, Les. Rowbotham, Frank. Azhashemi, Masud. “Operations Management in Context” Butterworth-Heinemann 2001 7 Davis, Mark M. Aquilano, Nicholas J. Chase, Richard B. “Fundamentals of Operations Management” 4th Edition. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2003 8 Slack, Nigel. Chambers, Stuart. Johnston, Robert.
“Operations Management” Financial Times Prntice-Hall 3rd Edition 2001 9 Slack, Nigel. Chambers, Stuart. Johnston, Robert. “Operations Management” Financial Times Prntice-Hall 3rd Edition 2001 10 James, Paul. “Total Quality Management, An Introductory Text” Prentice Hall 1996 11 BIAC’s mission is “to provide to its customers lasting and sustainable high-quality airport services while creating long-term profitability in line with the market”.
12 Ho, Samuel K M. “Operations and Quality Management” Thompson Business Press 1999.13 BIAC Annual Report 2003. http://www. brusselsairport. be/biac/ 14 See appendix III 15 http://www. efqm. org 16 The National Probation Directorate http://knivblak01. uuhost. uk. uu. net/documents/eemguideSe68pp. pdf Operations Management August 2004 Christian Berglund Student No: 18424203 1 Show preview only The above preview is unformatted text This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Computer Science section.