The communication model, described as a series of steps consists of the following components, shown in the diagram.
This is the source of information or the initiator of communication. This source or the message sender may want to communicate his ideas, needs, intentions or other pieces of information.
Encoding is the process inside the human mind or brain in the form of motor skills, muscle system or sensory skills that encode the ideas to be conveyed into a series of symbols or gestures or some other format of expression.
The message is the physical form of the thought which can be experienced and understood by one or more senses of the receiver. It could be in such forms that require either hearing or reading or some other forms of physical gestures.
It is a vehicle used in the transmission of a message. It is a medium carrier which bridges the gap between the sender and the receiver. It may be a face to face conversation, a telephone conversation, in written form or through any other form of physical gestures.
The message is received by the person for whom it was meant and he becomes the receiver of the message.
Decoding is done in the same manner as encoding, by motor skills, muscle system and sensory skills and the receiver decodes the message for the purpose of interpreting and understanding the meaning of the message. The more the sender’s intended message matches the receiver’s understanding, the more effective the communication is.
This involves response from the receiver who has received and accepted the communicated message. This may involve compliance with an instruction and acting upon it or simply filing of the message for future references.
A feedback determines whether the message was received and clearly understood and the required action taken. The feedback to the sender completes the process of communication.