An elevator is a mechanism for moving people and freight from level to level in abuilding or any other structure. The first elevator-like structure was built in 236 BC by theArchimeds. This construction was a hoist operated by ropes and pulleys. However, thefirst pragmatic elevator was not developed until the 19th century. Though sensible, thiselevator has been modified many times throughout the course of history and is stillupdated with all of the new advancements in math and technology.
From the start of theproduction of elevators through today, there have been numerous and boundlessimprovements made on their structure and how they operate: all due to the advancementof mathematics and technology. The first elevator developed was known as a manual elevator. This system ofelevators used relay logic. Relay logic was a simple wiring based on circuits. This typeof elevator did not transfer people from one level to another, only cargo. *****The second type of elevators was developed in the 1800s. These elevators werepowered by steam. At first, these elevators were used solely to transport freight infactories and ore in mines.
Unfortunately, these elevators required a safety device torestrain the elevator from dropping if its supporting cable broke, and this had not beeninvented yet. Eventually, this necessity was discerned and acted upon. In 1852, ElishaGraves Otis designed the first safety contrivance for elevators. This device was a systeminvolving spring-operated cams that affianced the guide rails in the elevator shaft when thecable broke. This secured the elevator from subsiding which enabled steam poweredelevators to be used for transporting people along with cargo. This new use was causedby the precautions taken in improving the safety of steam powered elevators. It was firstused for people in 1857 in New Yorks own Haughwout department store.
This edificewas driven by steam power: unlike the manual elevator it had the capability of transportingpeople from floor to floor. Though this was a major amplification in the manufacturing ofelevators, technology and mathematics were still improving allowing for even more typesof ameliorated elevators to take the place of those already produced. As mathematics advanced, the third type of elevators was formulated. This beingthe hydraulic elevator was the first practical elevator with semblance to those of todaystime. The concept of hydraulics is somewhat based on Pascals Law.
This stated thatpressure exerted upon a liquid is transmitted in all directions at the same magnitude. Thiswas theorized sometime in the mid-17th century yet its capability of advancing andexplaining technology was not fully accredited until the 19th century when hydraulicelevators were first introduced. Hydraulic elevators were used between 1857 and 1889. Operated by means of a vertical plunger, this elevator traveled up and down a cylinderpushing and lowering the car above it. The vertical plunger was reallocated by liquidunder pressure. A hand-driven pump (hydraulic jack) created this pressure.
The basicidea behind any hydraulic system is extraordinarily simple. Any force that is applied at onepoint is moved to another point using an incompressible fluid (either oil or water) whilethe force is frequently multiplied in the process. The fluid used was most often oil. Oilwas preferred over water because of its shielding and lubricating behavior, and in the caseof mineral oil, its low coherence. Though the popular use of hydraulic elevators ended in1889, they are still used in prewar buildings.
Furthermore, they are presently utilized incarrying certain heavy masses. Electrically driven elevators were devised before their initial commercialapplication in 1889. This presentation took place in one of New Yorks finest buildings,the Demarest. For the first time in all history, an electrically driven elevator was installedfor the utilization of the public. This genre of elevator was operated by an electric motor. This motor drove a winding drum in the basement of the building.Following this,significant advancements came about in 1894 and then another in 1895.
First, in 1894,push-button controls were introduced. Like modern elevators, this invention sufferedpeople to simply push the button of the floor they were going to instead of having to use alever to determine the floor (by pushing it left or right for down and the opposite for up). The second invention (1895) was that of a hoisting apparatus.
This device wasascertained in England. Its purport was to make the move of the cable drum to