During the 17th and 18th centuries Europe entered a period of Enlightenment. This period denounced and rejected the Aristotelian view of Scholasticism that still dominated Renaissance Europe, and brought forth a fresh view on the world through rationalization and logic. John Locke (1632-1704) and Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) both revolutionized human-nature and political thought during this period. Despite the similarity of being pro constitutionalism, their achievements exposed different ideas.
In his Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Locke explored the function of the human mind. He symbolized birth as a Tabula Rosa (blank tablet), and argued that there existed no innate ideas; all knowledge is derived from direct sensual experiences. He also denied the existence of intrinsic moral norms. He believed moral ideas to be the product of people's free acts of self-discipline so that conflict in conscience may be avoided and happiness attained. Locke was very religious as well. At no point did he ever try to eradicate the Church's teachings. In fact, one of his believes was of Deism, the belief that Christian teachings were identical to those of uncorrupted reason. To him, a rational person would always live according to Christian moral precepts. He, however, firmly denied toleration to Catholics and atheists, and sanctified a variety of Protestant sects.
While the reign of Charles II, Lock wrote Two Treatises of Government. Here he opposed the argument, given by Sir Robert Filmer and Thomas Hobbs, absolute monarchies. Locke devoted his entirefirst treatise to refute the idea that kings had a right over their subjects as a father has over his children, set by Sir Filmer in his book Patriarcha. He maintained that both kings and fathers were bound by the law of nature. He stated in his second treatise that the voice of reason teaches that "all mankind [is] equal and independent, and that no one ought to harm