Codeine: Codeine is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. It is rapidly distributed from the intravascular spaces to the various body tissues, with preferential uptake by parenchymatous organs such as the liver, spleen and kidney. Codeine crosses the blood-brain barrier, and is found in fetal tissue and breast milk. The plasma concentration does not correlate with brain concentration or relief of pain; however, codeine is not bound to plasma proteins and does not accumulate in body tissues. Treatment: A single or multiple overdose with acetaminophen and codeine is a potentially lethal polydrug overdose, and consultation with a regional poison control center is recommended.
Signs and Symptoms:Codeine: Toxicity from codeine poisoning includes the opioid triad of: pinpoint pupils, depression of respiration, and loss of consciousness. Convulsions may occur. WHY is this drug prescribed?Codeine is used, usually in combination with other medications, to reducecoughing that does not produce sputum or mucus. It is also used for reliefof mild to moderate pain.
When used for pain, codeine is usually used withaspirin and sometimes caffeine.WHEN should it be used?Codeine is usually taken every four to six hours as needed. Follow thedirections on your prescription label carefully, and ask your pharmacistor doctor to explain any part that you do not understand.HOW should it be used?Codeine is available, alone or with other medications, in tablets,capsules, and liquid to be taken by mouth. Your prescription label tellsyou how much to take at each dose. The liquid should be shaken well beforeeach use to mix the medicine evenly. Ask your pharmacist for a speciallymarked measuring spoon to be sure of an accurate dose. Do not take more ofthis drug than prescribed by your doctor.
Serious side effects can occur,especially in children who take too much. Adults giving this medication toa child should be careful to give the correct dose and not to give it moreoften than prescribed by the doctor. For a cough, patients older than 12years should not take more than 120 mg of codeine a day. Children six to12 years old should not take more than 60 mg a day. A doctor should decidehow much codeine can be taken by a child two to five years old. This drugshould not be given to children younger than two years.
Abuse and Dependence: Codeine can produce drug dependence of the morphine type and, therefore, has the potential for being abused. Psychological dependence, physical dependence, and tolerance may develop upon repeated administration and it should be prescribed and administered with the same degree of caution appropriate to the use of other oral narcotic medications. Codeine may impair mental and/or physical abilities required for the performance of potentially hazardous tasks such as driving a car or operating machinery.
Such tasks should be avoided while taking this product. Alcohol and other CNS depressants may produce an additive CNS depression, when taken with this combination product, and should be avoided. Codeine may be habit-forming. Patients should take the drug only for as long as it is prescribed, in the amounts prescribed, and no more frequently than prescribed. What SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS should I follow while using this drug?Codeine can be habit-forming. Do not take it more often or for a longertime than your doctor tells you to, and do not take more than the amountprescribed at each dose. If you think that you need more to relieve yoursymptoms, call your doctor.
Codeine makes some people drowsy. Do not drivea car or operate dangerous machinery until you know how it affects you.Do not drink alcohol while taking this medication. Alcohol can add to thedrowsiness caused by codeine.What SIDE EFFECTS can this drug cause? What can I do about them?Although side effects from codeine are not common, they can occur.Drowsiness, dizziness, fainting.
Lie down for a while. Get up slowly. Ifthese effects continue or are severe, call your doctor. Nausea, vomiting,dry mouth, constipation. Take codeine with food or milk. Eat foods high infiber, and drink plenty of fluids. If these effects continue or aresevere, call your doctor.
Chest pain, slow or difficult breathing. Stoptaking the drug and call your doctor at once. Hallucinations, slow orrapid heartbeat, severe sedation, seizures.
Stop taking the drug and callyour local poison control center immediately. These effects indicate thatyou probably have taken