Running Head: BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS, PART II Business Research Methods, Part II University of Phoenix QNT/HC561: Applied Business in Research & Statistics in Health Care Group ID: MBAY0ZATZ9 Erik Kirk, PhD August 22, 2011 Introduction Recently, Learning Team “A” was tasked with developing a research question arising from an organizational dilemma faced by the Physical Therapy Clinic. As a result of preliminary research analysis, the team determined constraints in clinical practice were having a negative impact on the therapist’s ability to fully meet patient needs.
A proposal was submitted to organizational leadership that included recommendations to utilize a standard six-step research question hierarchy process. The result would produce a data pool that would be used to perform a full analysis of the issue found in the preliminary research phase. Learning Team “A” will choose a survey design package after review of several method options available to them. After settling on the method that best suits the project purpose, the team will develop a survey using a pre-defined measurement scale selected to ensure that third-party payer group responses will produce useful data.
Finally, the team will determine the optimal variable classification to use to conduct the final analysis of data. Survey Method Selection & Justification of Choice One of the most critical components of the Physical Therapy Clinic research project is the process by which information will be gathered from respondents to provide information on services provided by the clinic. After careful consideration of the various survey methods available to the team and balancing the obvious advantages and disadvantages of each, the use of a longitudinal survey was selected as the method that would produce the optimum data set for future analysis.
The longitudinal survey method is utilized when one wishes to gather data that spreads over a specified period. The longitudinal survey presents the research team with the options of gathering trend, cohort, or panel study-based data. The trend study data is the most useful option because of its ability to combine data from several studies of the same population to show trends in behavior. Additional longitudinal surveys may be conducted at a future date on the cohort to determine whether it is a specific type of injury or treatment plan is influencing the third-party payer ability or desire to reimburse the organization.
Finally, panel studies should also be considered to determine if changes in population size or activity during a particular time of the year is responsible for the trend of nonpayment by payer groups (Colorado State University, 2011). Construct a Survey Appropriate For the Research Question and Sample The main goal of the survey is to identify the possible “constraints” from the sample group that will give possible answers to why there may be a denial of claims submitted to insurance companies because there was not a successful rehabilitation.
The questions will also help in identifying the successful patient’s background, treatment plan, and prognosis that insurance companies are more apt to pay on their claim. After the comparison of the data collected from the answers from the survey, the physical therapist would have a better understanding on how to control the constraints that are prohibiting the full rehabilitation of certain patients. All answers from the questionnaires will be compared and evaluated to explore the different findings to what, why, how certain physical therapy initial evaluations are more successful than others with the same diagnosis.
A sample of three patients were selected and all diagnosis with a left torn knee meniscus. Sample Survey Physical Therapy Initial Evaluation Patient 1Patient 2Patient 3 Ages:277817 1) What is the diagnosis? Answer: Torn left knee meniscusAnswer: Torn left knee meniscusAnswer: Torn left knee meniscus 2) What are the subjective findings? Mechanism of injury, patient reports decrease in mobility. Patient was injured at work loading crates. Patient was reinjured knee falling on ice while shoveling snow. Mechanism of injury, patient reports decrease in mobility. Patient was injured during high school soccer game. ) Has there been prior therapy for same condition? oYes ? No ? Yes oNo oYes ?No 4) What does patient states overall health is currently? oPoor ? Good oExcellent? Poor oGood oExcellentoPoor oGood ?Excellent 5) What is the patient’s social history/living environment? Lives with his wife and three childrenWidow and lives alone. Lives at home with parents. 6) What is the patient’s prior level of function? Works out occasionallyHas no time to exercise. Trains daily with team during season and works out regularly during off season. 7) What is the patient’s current functional level?
Have no limitations. Advance onset of arthritis present in both knees. Have no limitations. 8) Is the physical therapy clinic a provider within the patient’s insurance plan and will the therapy be covered? PPO plan that covers up to $1000 for physical therapy, however he also will be getting workers compensation. Medicare supplemental, with a doctor’s order medicare covers physical therapy and the supplemental insurance will cover the co-payments. PPO plan that covers up to $1000 for physical therapy 12) Did the patient have a doctor’s referral for the physical therapy? oYes ? No ? Yes oNo oNo ?Yes 3) According to the physical therapist, has the patient been compliant to their treatment plan, such as following instructions during therapy, and home care instructions? oYes ? No ? Yes oNo oNo ?Yes 14) What will be the physical therapist’s prognosis for meeting goals/rehabilitation potential? 😕 Poor oGood oExcellent oPoor ?Good oExcellentoPoor oGood ?Excellent Present Your Data in One of the Appropriate General Response Types: Rating, Ranking, Categorization, or Sorting This longitudinal study surveyed both patients and physical therapists to determine the constraints impacting the outcomes in physical therapy.
Of the four general types of measurement scales used to assign characteristics to the properties in survey questions, ranking allowed the team to determine which factors, as perceived by the patient and therapists had the most negative impact on patient outcomes. The results indicated that over half of the patients unsatisfied with their outcomes were discharged from rehabilitation due to constraints placed on reimbursements by third-party payers. In addition, physical therapists ranked the following reasons among the highest impact on negative patient outcomes: •Stringent billing standards Escalating documentation and administrative duties •Requirements from administrators to contain costs •Lack of resources impacting the duration of care These findings were consistent with the theory held by the physical therapy practitioners that constraints in clinical practice hinder their ability to fully rehabilitate their patients. Classify Your Findings in Order of Power: Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, and Ratio. In the longitudinal survey we decided to measure what factors influence reimbursement for services rendered. These results would be nominal, also referred to as categorical, variables.
These variables by their very nature are exclusive but not ordered. What this means is that the order is arbitrary and any calculations would be meaningless. The only relevant input we would be able to extract is frequency. In regard to the panel studies being considered to identify changes in population size or activity during a particular time of the year is responsible for the trend of nonpayment by payer groups, these measurements would be considered ordinal variables. “An ordinal variable is similar to a categorical variable. The difference between the two is that there is a clear ordering of the variables.
For example, suppose you have a variable, economic status, with three categories (low, medium and high). In addition to being able to classify people into these three categories, you can order the categories as low, medium and high. Now consider a variable like educational experience (with values such as elementary school graduate, high school graduate, some college and college graduate). These also can be ordered as elementary school, high school, some college, and college graduate. Even though we can order these from lowest to highest, the spacing between the values may not be the same across the levels of the variables”(UCLA, n. . ). Conclusion In response to the task of developing a research question arising from an organizational dilemma faced by the Physical Therapy Clinic, Learning Team A utilized previous analysis in determining the best approach in developing a survey to gather data for the organizational leadership. Learning Team A choose a two-fold approach in the data gathering process. The first would be a longitudinal survey backed by panel surveys to determine any other variables that would have affected the data. This will produce the full data set needed for further analysis of the third party repayment issue.
References Babbie, Earl R. Survey Research Methods. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Pub. Co. , 1973. Exhaustive description of the purposes, methods, and techniques of surveying. If you are going to conduct a survey, you need to read this book first. Colorado State University (2011). Survey Methods. Retrieved August 18, 2011 from http://writing. colostate. edu/guides/research/survey/pop2c. cfm Cooper, D. R. (2006). Market Research. McGraw Hill Higher Education. Retrieved from http://highered. mcgraw-hill. com/sites/0072837861/student_view0/glossary. tml Cooper, D. R. , & Schindler, P. S. (2008). Business Research Methods, Tenth Edition. Retrieved from https://ecampus. phoenix. edu/content/eBookLibrary2/content/eReader. aspx? Friedman, H. H. (1999). Rating the rating scales. Journal of Marketing Management, Vol 9:3. Retrieved from http://academic. brooklyn. cuny. edu/economic/friedman/rateratingscales. htm UCLA. (n. d. ). What is the difference between categorical, ordinal and interval variables?. Retrieved from http://www. ats. ucla. edu/stat/mult_pkg/whatstat/nominal_ordinal_interval. htm