All children go through the same sequences of development, but the way they do will differs, according to their environment, developmental norms or now referred to as ‘Milestones’. Milestones are guidelines that show what most children should be able to do. Developmental milestones can be misleading, as normative development can make us want to compare children with each other, which may result in ‘labeling’ children, affecting their self esteem and self concept. There are any different factors that may affect the child’s development these can be.
Pre-natal so before birth, when the child is in the mothers womb Genetics The physical + social setting of a child’s everyday life Psychology of the care givers This essay will be looking into how children develop, focusing on PILES, looking at the areas listed below for each development: 1. Some of the critical and sensitive periods in the Childs life 0-8 years 2. Factors that may affect the Childs development. 3. Different assessing techniques to measure development In this section of the essay we shall be looking at Physical Development.
Children all go through stages when they should master these skills and develop. Normative development checklists, percentiles, and growth and height charts can measure these skills and development. Other techniques used for studying children are such as observing children, cross section methods and longitudinal methods. Growth refers to an increase in physical size and can be measured by height. Before child is born growth is measured by ultrasound scans, weighing of the mother and feeling her abdomen. Heredity, hormones, nutrition and emotional influences determine growth.
The first critical period for the development of the child is pre-birth, when the child is still in the mother’s womb, known as the pre-natal stage. Many issues that can take place that can affect the fetus, such as Mother taking drugs Alcohol Medicines Mother stressing Heredity-chromosomes disorder According to brain wonders the brain ‘begins forming at very early stage in prenatal life’. Major difference between brain development in a child vs. learning an adult is a matter of degree: ‘the brain is far more impressionable (neurosciences use the term plastic) in early life than in maturity.
This plasticity has both a positive and negative side. Positive side means that young children’s brains are more open to learning and enriching influences. On the negative side, it means that young children’s brain are more vulnerable to developmental problems, should their environment prove especially impoverished or unnurishing’ www. zerotothree. com (Brain wonders) The first critical period after the baby is born starts according to Bee (2004) at ‘birth’ pg 449, this is the critical stage where the baby has already inbuilt reflexes born within them these replaced by voluntary responses as the brain takes control of behavior as for e.g. the grasp reflex has to fade before the baby can learn to hold objects in his hands.
The reflexes are important indication of the ‘health and nervous system of the baby, if they persist beyond an expected time it may indicate delay in development’ Bruce T Meggit, C (2002) pg 301 Sucking Rooting Grasping Blinking Moro startle stepping/ walking V, Reynolds (1989) pg 58 Babies lose some these reflexes, but some continue throughout their life, so it is very critical that the baby masters these, as some are the basic needs to survive.
As for e.g. the sucking reflex, if the child doesn’t know how to suck they wont be able to feed, so this would be critical period and the baby will have to learn this skill then to ensure them to survive. Most reflexes according to Pamela (2002) disappear by ‘3 months’ Pg 72 Sensitive period could be in physical development for e. g. if a child doesn’t crawl first and goes onto walking then it may result in the child becoming clumsy this would be known as a sensitive period and not critical as the child has learnt the skill but has leaped form one stage to another.
According to Sheridan (1997) Pg 13 ‘child should learn how to crawl between 9-12 months. ‘ This part of the essay shall be looking at Social and Emotional development. Social + emotional developments are an essential part of the child’s development, just as physical, language, etc. Piaget thought that the two ‘were inseparable’ he stressed that ‘it was impossible to think without feeling, or to feel without thinking’ Bruce, T, Meggit, C, (2002) Pg 142 From as early as birth the baby will be start bonding with adults, and during the first year develop a ‘ self concept’ (sense of identity) Bruce, T, Meggit, C, (2002) Pg 143.