The news reports on terrorism and Princess Diana shows that the other is the enemy of the west. The stereotype of the other has an effect on the self identity of an individual. The medias representation of Black males as criminals, gang members and drug dealers has an effect on the actual lives of Black people. They may have low expectactions of themselves. Black directors like Ronan Bennette, who produced Top Boy conformed to the representation of Black boys as drug dealers and gang members rather than correcting these stereotype that dominant groups have created.
The media defines race for us by challenging, perpetuating or supporting racist views in the media, in other words it is central to what came to represent our social identities. Stereotypes distort how the otheris seen by other racial and ethnic groups. Black neighbourhoods are portrayed in the media as the ghetto where crime occurs, this has contributed to the increased police activity in the urban areas these young black men reside in. It can also be argued that the medias stereotypes of Black males as potential deliquents has contributed to persistent stop and search system by the police of black youngsters.
Baker (2008, p. 250) states that In the Stuart case in Boston, the police, at the instigation of the actual (white murderer), interrogated and searched as many Black men as they could in a Black neighbourhood, a measure unthinkable in White neighbourhoods, which are rarely seen as representational sites of crime. The result of the media stereotyping Arabs as fanatics and violent could lead to people thinking that Arab people are extreme and islam is threatening, trying to kill Americans as a result of images provided by the media.
The new racism in Britain relies on cultural differences that exclude black people from being fully a part of the nation. There are racist discourse that excludes Black people from being part of the English community because they are not white and there are racist comments like Go Back Home. This comment is problematic because the other is excluded as it doesnt conform to the values and beliefs of the norm, consequently it has contributed to tensions between the extreme norm and the other.
Most of the debates on race, ethnicity and identity assume that whites are not to be raced and talking about race would mean talking about people of colour e. g. Blacks, Asians. It is almost as if the white subject, suffers from being eft out of what gets put in place to deal with the effects of white privilege. White people have been pinpointed to be the norm that has the power to dictate identities to or dominate the.
Dyer critiques the invisibility of whiteness and argues that the transformation and deconstruction of whiteness into a colour can help to conceal the power and privilege of whiteness. Dyer argues that the point of seeing the racing of whites is to dislodge them/us from the position of power-by undercutting the authority with which they/we speak and act in and on the world (Ahmed, 2004). He seeks to make the invisibility of whiteness visible. This is a rainbow view of multiculturalism as acolour spectrum (Lury, cited in Ahmed, 2004).
The deconstruction of whiteness to contest the form of white priviledge is to conceal inequalities that structure the present and to show that white is just another minority, who can suffer discrimination just like everyone. Most of the discourse of race, ethnicity and identity define the other as people of colour and that white is the norm but the transformation of whiteness by Dyers debateshows that colour can be invisible, so it can also be the norm in certain areas e. g. Hip Hop, Sports, areas that are populated by black bodies. And white is the other here.
So it isnt necessarily people of colour i. e. Blacks that are the other, white people can also be the other, since its privilege has been contested by Dyer?s debate. Although, there are critcs on whether the transformation of whiteness can be attainable. Theorietical debates provided by Stuart Hall, Bell Hooks, Edward Said, and texts from Eastenders and newsreports on race and terrorism shows that dominant groups use mass media representation of race to construct the other as different, stigmatising it as alien or a threat to maintain oppression, exploitation and to construct itself as the norm.
The stereotypes of theother as deviant and abnormal influences self and social identity. Dyer contests the power of whiteness to show that white is just a minority. The discourse of theothemakes us understand racism. The dominant group appoints the other, this is because the other is a minority and the norm is the majority. We should not allow ourselves to be consumed that light-skinned black people are more desirable than dark-skinned black people.
Young (2000, p. 427) states that ur energies should be aimed at the system that constructs and produces us as racialized, gendered, classed and sexualized subjects in such a way that we are constantly placed in a hierarchy and presented to each other as natural enemies, forever in competition with each other. The other is a fascinating subject, which is used in the regime of representation. Whether we are racist or not the other still catches our attention.
BIBLIOGRAPHY Ahmed, 2004.Declarations of Whiteness: The non-performativity of anti-racism. [online] Available at: http://www. borderlands. net. au/vol3no2_2004/ahmed_declarations. htm [Accessed 06 December 2009]. Baker, C. (2008) Ethnicity, Race and Nation, Cultural studies: Theory and Practice. London: Sage(3rd Ed). CBS NEWS, 1995. 1995: Oklahoma City Bombing. [online] Available at: http://www. cbsnews. com/video/watch/? id=2683183n [Accessed 06 December 2009] Dwight E. Brooks and Lisa p. Hebert, 2006.
Gender, Race and Media Representation. [online] Available at http://www.wisecampus. om/uploads/notescans/GENDER,_RACE,_AND_MEDIA_REPRESENTATION. pdf [Accessed 06 December 2009]. Hall, S (1997) The Work of Representation, Hall, S. (ed. ) Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices. London/Thousand Oaks, CA/New Delhi: Sage. Hall, S (1997) The Spectacle of theother in Hall, S. (ed. ) Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices.
London: Sage/OUP. Mail Online, 2009. BBCs first ever all black episode of Eastenders watched by 8.4million viewers. [online] Available http://www. dailymail. co. uk/tvshowbiz/article-1153903/BBCs-black-episode-EastEnders-watched-8-4million-viewers. html [Accessed 06 December 2009]. Said, E. (1978). Orientalism. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Stam and Shohat (1994) Stereotype, Realism and the Struggle over Representation, Unthinking Eurocentrism: Multiculturalism and the Media, Routledge, New York/London. Sunday Times, 1997. A Match Made in Heaven?. [online]
Available at: http://www. clairedanes.com/print/times031697. html [Accessed 06 December 2009] The Guardian, 2007. Is Obama Black Enough?. [online] Available at: http://www. guardian. co. uk/world/2007/mar/01/usa. uselections2008 [Accessed 06 December 2009]. Young, L(2000) How do we look? : Unfixing the (singular) black female subject in P. Gilroy et al (eds) Without guarantees: In honour of Stuart Hall. Verso:2000. Youtube, 2010. All Terrorists are Muslims. [online] Available at: http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=c06UapLlfnw [Accessed 06 December 2009].