Urinary Analysis Bio 224L Wed. 9:30-10:50 Amie Gohn 11-30-11 Mr. Brown Introduction There are many different factors that can affect urine including volume, urine concentration, and pH levels. Factors that affect urine volume are fluid intake and reabsorption, which affects the amount of urine released. Urine concentration is measured by the concentration of dissolved solids present in a person’s urine, which is affected by water intake levels as well as diet (the amount of sodium in person’s diet).
The pH scale has a range of normal, acidic, or basic. Acidic urine occurs when the pH scale is low, possibly caused by taking too many acidic drugs, like aspirin, or it can be basic, meaning the pH scale is high which could be due to an illness including heavy vomiting or diarrhea, causing the body to not have enough acids in the urine. These factors are all very different, but are interconnected because an imbalance in any of these factors can lead to imbalances in other areas as well (Wise, 2010).
The importance of this lab is to analyze factors that may affect urine concentration, pH, and rate of production (flow rate) though multiple scenarios over a period of 60 minutes. My hypothesis for the urine analysis experiment is that the urine volumes will increase because of the increase of fluids to the body for groups 1 and 3, in comparison with the control group (group 4), and decrease in the group not group 2 based on the excess absorption of fluid caused by the increase of sodium.
I also hypothesize that the rate of production will be greater than the control group (group 4) in the groups 1 and 3 and remain unchanged for group 2. The pH scale will remain constant for groups 1, 2 and be more acidic for group 3 due to the additional citric acid contained in soda when compared with the control group. Methods In this experiment, the BIO 224L classes were broken in 4 groups; group 1: drank water; group 2: consumed pretzels; group 3: drank varying types of soda pop; group 4: the control group, not consuming anything.
The procedure involved collecting urine from each member of the groups 3 times in a 60 minute time frame (0, 30, 60 minutes). Prior to any consumption of product the first specimen was collected, in a graduated specimen cup, and the samples were analyzed using the Chemstrip Procedure to test for pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), volume and flow rate providing data for ten separate variables: Specific gravity, pH, Leukocytes, Nitrites, Protein, Glucose, Ketones, Urobilinogen, Bilirubin and Blood levels (Hematuria)(Wise, 2010).
After the first test was complete, providing a baseline value for each individual, the groups were instructed to consume their respective product; 650ml of water group 1, 650ml of various sodas group 2, 10 pretzels group 3 and nothing for the control group 4. The remaining sample collections taken at 30 and then 60 minutes following consumption were tested for pH, flow rate, volume of urine and total dissolved solids (using a conductivity meter probe generating a value for TDS). Table 1: Personal Variables Urine Test| Value Recorded (40 sec)| Specific gravity| 1. 02| pH| 5| Leukocytes| Positive| Nitrite| Negative|
Protein| 100 mh/dl| Glucose| Normal| Ketones| Negative| Urobilinogen| Normal| Bilirubin| Positive| Blood| No trace| Total Dissolve Solids| 12300| Table 2: Class Data Averages | Min| Class Average Group 1| Class Average Group 2| Class Average Group 3| Class Average Group 4| Urine Volume (mL/min)| 0| 78. 57143| 107. 9286| 102. 18| 95. 25| | 30| 42. 57143| 51. 64286| 44. 125| 37. 58333| | 60| 103. 5714| 33. 07143| 79. 8125| 27. 66667| Flow Rate (mL/min)| 0| 0. 949786| 1. 102857| 0. 984125| 5. 685| | 30| 1. 321429| 1. 658786| 3. 28| 3. 670833| | 60| 3. 044286| 1. 031643| 6. 279375| 5. 753333| Total DissolvedSolids (mg/L)| 0| 9224. 43| 7232. 5| 9898. 125| 9005. 833| | 30| 9407. 5| 8182. 143| 7613. 438| 9701. 667| | 60| 3234. 231| 8709. 643| 6712. 938| 10444. 17| pH| 0| 6. 178571| 5. 857143| 5. 70625| 5. 666667| | 30| 6. 321429| 5. 964286| 7. 5125| 8. 291667| | 60| 6. 121429| 6. 035714| 8. 84375| 10. 83333| Figure 1: Class Averages of pH vs. Time pH levels for group 1 and 2 remained near 6. 0 in response to the consumption of water and pretzels respectively. The control group had a consistent rise in pH levels during the allotted time period. Figure 2: Class Averages of Total Dissolved Solids vs. Time Group 1 had a dramatic decrease, from 9407. mg/L to 3234. 231 mg/L in the last 30 minutes of the experiment in response to the consumption of water. Figure 3: Class Averages of Flow Rate vs. Time The consumption of any product caused the rate of urine production to stay even throughout the experiment in all 3 groups. Figure 4: Class Averages of Urine Volume vs. Time Discussion Kidneys are used to regulate the balance of salt and water through the filtration, reabsorption and release of urine. There are many factors that can affect this process, and change the amount of urine, the production of urine, the pH, and the total dissolved solids, not just the increased intake f water, sodium or citric acid (the main ingredients in the experiments products that affect urine). The hypothesis was that urine volume would have an increase in groups 1 and 3, with a decrease in group 2. The hypothesis, in regards to groups 1 and 3, is disproven given that the urine volume for all groups decreased in the first 30 minutes and then increased by the end of the 60 minutes but not as great as the control group; in regards to group 2 the hypothesis is both right and wrong, the volume decreased in the first 30 minutes but then increased by the end of the experiment time period.
Majority of students from group 1 and 3 had an increase in urine production between the 30 and 60 minute time frames. This is due to the response of the body to an increase of liquid in the kidneys. A study from Moller, McIntosh, and Van Slyke involved regularly obtaining urine samples for urinalysis and they state that “The variations in urine volume were obtained by controlling the water intake. When minimal urine volumes were desired no fluids were given from the previous evening till noon or later. High volumes were obtained by giving water freely hour by hour”.
This study shows that the greater the water intake, the body will increase urine production as well. The second part of the hypothesis was disproved by all groups, in that they had very little change in production of urine during the experiment when compared to the change in production for the control group, possibly due to a higher absorption rate by the body for the products consumed. The third part of the hypothesis was disproven as well, since none of the groups had a change in pH as large as the control group.
This could be possible given the control groups bodies would be processing in a normal manner while the other groups’ bodies would have to adjust the process according to the substance respectively consumed. References: Moller, Eggert, McIntosh, J. F. , and Van Slyke, D. D (1928). “Studies of Urea Excretion II: Relationship Between Urine Volume and the Rate of Urea Excretion by Normal Adults” Journal of Clinical Investigation 6(3): 427-465. Wise, E. (2010). Laboratory Manual Saldin Anatomy and Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function (5th ed. ). New York, NY, United States of Amercia: McGraw-Hill.