Born in the year of 384 B.C. Aristotle was seen as conventional for his
time, for he regarded slavery as a natural course of nature and believed that
certain people were born to be slaves due to the fact that their soul lacked the
rational part that should rule in a human being; However in certain
circumstances it is evident that Aristotle did not believe that all men who were
slaves were meant to be slaves.
In his book Politics, Aristotle begins with the Theory of The Household,
and it is here that the majority of his views upon slavery are found. With the
beginning of Chapter IV, Aristotle’s idea of slavery is clearly defined. “The
instruments of the household form its stock of property : they are animate and
inanimate : the slave is an animate instrument, intended (like all the
instruments of the household) for action, and not for productions.” This
distinction between action and production, is based upon the understanding that
‘production’ is a course in which a result is desired beyond the immediate act
of doing. Where as, the simple act of completing a task is identified as
‘action’. Aristotle, who believed that life was action and not production
theorized that slaves were instruments of life and were therefore needed to form
a complete household. In fact Aristotle went as far as to say that a slave was
comparable to a tame animal, with their only divergence in the fact that a slave
could apprehend reason. For he concluded that a slave and animals only use was
to supply their owners with bodily help.
At the end of the Theories of the Household, Aristotle explains how
slaves are different from andy other types of people, in the sence that they are
the only class who are born into their occupation and become property of their
masters. In examining this relationship we find that he thought that while
masters were the masters of the slaves, they still held a life other than that
of being master; However, Aristotle believed that not only was the slave a
slave to his master, but the slave had no other life or purpose than belonging.
From this consideration we begin to understand Aristotle’s views on the
relationship between Master and Slave.
At the beginning of Chapter V of the Theory of the Household, the
distinct role of master and slave is defined.
There is a principle of rule and subordin-
action in nature at large : it appears
especially in the realm of animate creation.
By virtue of that principle, the soul rules
the body; and by virtue of it the master, who
possesses the rational faculty of the soul,
rules the slave, who possesses only bodily
powers and the faculty of understanding the
directions given by another’s reason.
It was Aristotle’s views on the human soul that gave grounds to his
arguments for slavery. It was his beliefs that the soul was divided into two
parts, being the rational faculty and the capacity for obeying. Aristotle
postulated that a freeman was innately born with the rational faculty while “A
slave is entirely without the faculty of deliberation.” And with his views he
felt as though it was necessary for there to be a natural ruling order, whereas,
the body was ruled by the soul, and those with the natural rational faculty
within their soul should rule others without. This relationship, Aristotle
found to be an essential element in his idea of master and slave being two parts
forming one common entity.
It was his belief that a man’s body was the representation of his inner
self and that it was nature’s intentions to distinguish between those who were
born to be freemen and those born to be slaves. However, we see that Aristotle
have somewhat reservations upon his beliefs that all slaves corresponded to his
mold. With such quotes as “But with nature , though she intends, does not
always succeed in achieving a clear distinction between men born to be masters
and men born to be slaves.” we begin to see that Aristotle was not as
conservative as believed. In fact, we start to understand the left-wing
attitudes that Aristotle held. At the end of Chapter V of the Theories of the
Household, Aristotle concludes “The contrary of nature’s intentions, however,
often happens: there are some slaves who have the bodies of freemen-as there
are others who have a freeman’s soul.”
Aristotle in his Theories of the Household, allocates a full section
(section 9 chapter VI), to the explanation of the relationship
Aristotle believes that happiness is the ultimate goal in life.You can't reach ultimate happiness unless you work hard and become successful.This is where his idea of self sufficiency comes into play, giving two main rules to live by, that (1) "…live to extent which even when isolated makes life desirable and lacking in nothing."Also (2) "Do things that which is always desirable in it and never for the sake of something else."The fact that you are the only one that is responsible for these actions is what makes it significant, because happiness is to be explained in terms of reason.To Aristotle, this means that happiness depends on the actualization of one's rationality.
A human's function is to engage in "an activity of the soul which is in accordance with virtue" and which "is in conformity with reason."The two kinds of virtue are intellectual and moral.Our virtues are what make us all individual and different.Intellectual virtues are what we are born with and what we learn.It is our nature as humans and what we have inherited that makes desire to learn.As humans, we develop wisdom to help guide us to a good life.With the intellectual virtue you develop two different kinds of wisdom: practical and philosophical.Practical wisdoms are your rational actions.
The highest virtue is philosophical wisdom, which is scientific, disinterested, and contemplative.Moral virtues are what we learn from imitation, practice and our habits we developed.Moral virtues are what we have learned from our society.Aristotle said, "Neither by nature, then, nor contrary to nature do the virtues arise in us; rather we are adapted by nature to receive them, and are made perfect by habit."This quote explains how you need both the intellectual virtue (nature) and the moral virtue (habit).
The soul is made up of three things: passions, faculties, and