a) OUTLINE one explanation for institutional aggression (5 marks) AO1 description. b) evaluate the explanation for institutional aggression outlined in part a) (20 marks) A. Aggression between humans has both impersonal and institutional aggressions. Institutional aggression may occur within institutions like prisons, army or psychiatric hospitals. The interpersonal factors – the ‘importance model’ suggested that prisoners when they get put into the jail they bring their own social history (maybe of violence/aggression) and traits with them into the prison and this then influences their adaption to the prison environment.
Irwin and Cressey (1962) argue that prisoners who come into prison don’t come with a ‘clean and blank slate’ that the prisoners bring which was their life outside of prison and ‘import it into the prison. The importation model is also consistent with evidence that aggression is inherited or biologically determined. Keller and Wang (2005) suggested that there were more assaults on staff in maximum security prisons than lower prisons meaning that prisoners in the maximum security prisons are more ‘violent’ due to the crimes they had committed and that they bring their aggression into the prison.
B. There is evidence which supports the study by Keller and Wang (2005) because high security prisons are with prisoners which have committed violent crimes and serious ones who are more likely to have more aggression than those in lower security prisons who have only been put in prison for less serious crimes. There is also a question whether institutional aggression is due to ‘disposition’ people that are aggressive anyway are attached to such groups are composed of aggressive people or the ‘situation’ which makes people aggressive.
The importation model shows evidence about whether aggression is inherited or biologically determined, Nelson (2005) said animals can be selectively bred for aggressions, and more likely that aggression is inherited as a disposition. Nelson (1995) also suggested that males are more aggressive than females due to a higher testosterone levels that are associated with aggression in male and female prisoners.
This suggests that people are naturally more aggressive than the other which supports Keller and Wang’s study (2005) when they suggested that people ‘import’ their dispositions into prisons or other institutions. There is also a question whether institutional aggression is due to ‘disposition’ people that are aggressive anyway are attached to such groups are composed of aggressive people or the ‘situation’ which makes people aggressive. The importation model suggests that