The UNO is a committee of nations. The original need for a world body to strive and keep peace in the world was felt after the end of the Second World War. Three big leaders of the world, Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin actively worked to form a world organisation. A conference was called at San Francisco which was attended by all the Allied Powers. The
Atlantic Charter of World Peace was formed. It was signed in San Francisco. The official languages of the UN are English, French, Chinese, Russian, Arabic and Spanish. The working languages are English and French only.
The Security Council is an important organ of the UNO. It has five permanent members—U.S.A., Russia, United Kingdom, France and Nationalist China. The permanent members have veto power. No resolution can be passed in the Security Council unless these five powers agree, barring abstention.
The other units of the UNO are the General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council, the International Court of Justice and Trusteeship Council. Each member nation is represented in the General Assembly. But the Security Council has only 15 members of which the five are permanent and the rest are elected by the General Assembly by rotation. The rest 10 members represent all the continents of the world. The judges of International Court of Justice (ICJ) are appointed by the General Assembly. The headquarters of the ICJ are at The Hague. The UNO shares great responsibilities without having equally great powers. It has done a solid job in Korea,
Indo-China, Suez and the Congo in preventing major international conflicts and maintaining peace and order in the afflicted countries. The biggest achievement of the United Nations since its existence is that it has prevented the repetition of the holocaust of Second World War. It has successfully intervened in regional and global conflicts to stop the outbreak of another war. The Indo-China War, The Arab- Israel War and the superpower confrontation in Cuba in 1961 bear ample testimony to the significant role played by the r United Nations in its peace-keeping efforts.
Indian troops have played a great part in all these conflicts and clashes. The UNO is also concerned with the welfare of humanity. It is trying to give man freedom from ignorance and disease also. Various UN agencies such as UNESCO and ILO, have contributed a good deal in improving the lot of the worlds unprivileged. The UNHRC has brought relief and peace to millions of displaced people.
There should be no interference in the working of this world body. It is the responsibility of the world leaders to maintain its sanity. It needs to be made more powerful.